Practice Guidelines for Sedation and Analgesia by Non-Anesthesiologists:  Bibliography

American Society of Anesthesiologists


1.              Ackerman WE, Phero JC, Theodore GT: Ineffective ventilation during conscious sedation due to chest wall rigidity after intravenous midazolam and fentanyl. Anesth Prog 37:46-48, 1990

2.              Aggarwal A, Ganguly S, Anand VK, Patwari AK: Efficacy and safety of intravenous ketamine for sedation and analgesia during pediatric endoscopic procedures. Indian Pediatr 35:1211-1214, 1998

3.              Alfonzo-Echeverri EC, Berg JH, Wild TW, Glass NL: Oral ketamine for pediatric outpatient dental surgery sedation.  Ped Dent 15:182-185, 1993

4.              al-Hadeedi S, Leaper DJ. Falls in hemoglobin saturation during ERCP and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.  World J Surg 15:88-94, 1991

5.              Alp H, Guler I, Orbak Z, Karakelleoglu C, Tan H, Eren S: Efficacy and safety of rectal thiopental: sedation for children undergoing computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatr Int 41:538-541, 1999

6.              Andrews PJD, Wright DJ, Lamont MC: Flumazenil in the outpatient: a study following midazolam as sedation for upper gastrointestional endoscopy. Anaesthesia 45:445-448, 1990

7.              Anonymous. Reversal of central benzodiazepine effects by flumazenil after conscious sedation produced by intravenous diazepam. MSG I.  Clin Ther 14(6): 895-909, 1992

8.              Anonymous. Reversal of central benzodiazepine effects by flumazenil after intravenous conscious sedation with diazepam and opioids: Report of a double-blind multicenter study. MSG 2. Clinical Therapeutics 14: 910-923, 1992

9.              Anonymous. Reversal of central benzodiazepine effects by intravenous flumazenil after conscious sedation with midazolam and opioids: a multicenter clinical study. MSG 2. Clinical Therapeutics 14: 878-894, 1992

10.           Anonymous. Reversal of central nervous system effects by flumazenil after intravenous conscious sedation with midazolam: report of a multicenter clinical study. MSG 1. Clin Ther 14(6): 861-877, 1992

11.           Aun C, Flynn P, Richards J, Major E: A comparison of midazolam and diazepam for intravenous sedation in dentistry.  Anaesthesia 39: 589-93, 1984

12.           Badner NH, Doyle JA, Smith MH, Herrick IA: Effect of varying intravenous patient-controlled analgesia dose and lockout interval while maintaining a constant hourly maximum dose. J Clin Anesth 8:382-385, 1996

13.           Bahal-O'Mara N, Nahata MC, Murray RD, Linscheid TR, Williams T, Li BU, McClung HJ, Lininger B: Efficacy of diazepam and meperidine in ambulatory pediatric patients undergoing endoscopy: a randomized, double-blind trial.  J Ped Gastroenterol Nutrition 16:387-392, 1993

14.           Bailey P, Clark N, Pace N, Isern M, Stanley TH: Failure of nalbuphine to antagonize morphine: A double-blind comparison with naloxone.  Anesth Analg 65:605-611, 1986

15.           Baldinelli L, Melotti R: Outpatient intravenous sedation.  Anesth Prog 36:157-158, 1989

16.           Balsells F, Wyllie R, Kay M, Steffen R: Use of conscious sedation for lower and upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examinations in children, adolescents, and young adults: a twelve-year review. Gastrointest Endosc 45:375-380, 1997

17.           Barclay J, Hunter K. A comparison of midazolam with and without nalbuphine for intravenous sedation.  Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 70(2):137-140, 1990

18.           Barclay JK, Hunter KM, McMillan W. Midazolam and diazepam compared as sedatives for outpatient surgery under local analgesia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Path 59:349-355, 1985

19.           Barr EB, Wynn RL: IV sedation in pediatric dentistry: an alternative to general anesthesia.  Ped Dent 14:251-255, 1992

20.           Barsan WG, Seger D, Danzl DF, Ling LJ, Bartlett R, Buncher R, Bryan C. Duration of antagonistic effects of nalmefene and naloxone in opiate-induced sedation for emergency department procedures.  Am J Emerg-Med 7:155-161, 1989

21.           Barsan WG, Tomassoni AJ, Seger D, Danzl DF, Ling LJ, Bartlett R. Safety assessment of high-dose narcotic analgesia for emergency department procedures. Ann Emerg Med 22, 1444-1449, 1993.

22.           Bartelsman JF, Sars PR, Tytgat GN: Flumazenil used for reversal of midazolam-induced sedation in endoscopy outpatients. Gastrointest Endosc 36:S9-12, 1990

23.           Bell GD, Antrobus JHL, Lee J, Coady T, Morden A: Bolus or slow titrated injection of midazolam prior to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy? Relative effect on oxygen saturation and prophylactic value of supplemental oxygen.  Aliment Pharmacol Ther 4:393-401, 1990

24.           Bell GD, Morden A, Bown S, Coady T, Logan RFA: Prevention of hypoxaemia during upper-gastrointestinal endoscopy by means of oxygen via nasal cannulae.  Lancet 1(8540):1022-1023, 1987

25.           Bell GD, Morden A, Coady T, Lee J, Logan R. A comparison of diazepam and midazolam as endoscopy premedication assessing changes in ventilation and oxygen saturation.  Br J Clin Pharm 26:595-600, 1988

26.           Bell GD, Quine A, Antrobus JHL, Morden A, Burridge SM, Lee J, Coady TJ: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: A prospective randomized study comparing continuous supplemental oxygen via the nasal or oral route.  Gastrointest Endosc 38(3):319-325, 1992

27.           Bell GD, Reeve PA, Moshiri M, Coady T, Stapleton PJ: Intravenous midazolam: a study of the degree of oxygen desaturation occurring during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Br J Clin Pharm 23:703-8, 1987

28.           Bendig DW.  Pulse oximetry and upper intestinal endoscopy in infants and children.  J Ped Gast & Nutr 12:39-43, 1991

29.           Bennett J, Peterson T, Burleson JA: Capnography and ventilatory assessment during ambulatory dentoalveolar surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 55:921-925, 1997

30.           Benusis KP, Kapaun D, Furnam LJ: Respiratory depression in a child following meperidine, promethazine, and chlorpromazine premedication: report of case.  J Dent Child Jan-Feb:50-53, 1979

31.           Berg JC, Miller R, Burkhalter E: Clinical value of pulse oximetry during routine diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic procedures.  Endoscopy 23:328-330, 1991

32.           Bernard JM, Lagatde D, Souron R: Balanced postoperative analgesia: effect of intravenous clonidine on blodd gases and pharmacokinetics of intravenous fentanyl. Anesth Analg 79:1126-1132, 1994

33.           Billmire DA, Neale HW, Gregory RO. Use of IV fentanyl in the outpatient treatment of pediatric facial trauma.  J Trauma 25:1079-1080, 1985

34.           Bilotta JJ, Floyd JL, Waye JD: Arterial oxygen desaturation during ambulatory colonoscopy.  Gastrointest Endosc 36:S5-S8, 1990

35.           Birch BR, Anson KM, Clifford E, Miller RA: Day-case surgery: enhanced recovery with flumazenil. J R Soc Med 83:436-438, 1990

36.           Birch BR, Anson KM, Kalmanovitch DV, Cooper J, Miller RA: Sedation for day-case urology: an assessment of patient recovery profiles after midazolam and flumazenil. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 73:373-378, 1991

37.           Birch BR, Miller RA: Walk-in, walk-out day case genito-urinary surgery with sedation reversal: a survey of patient attitudes and morbidity. Br J Urol 74:648-664, 1994

38.           Birkenfeld S, Federico C, Dermansky-Avni Y, Bruck R, Melzer E, Bar-Meir S: Double-blind controlled trial of flumazenil in patients who underwent uper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 35:519-522, 1989

39.           Biswas S, Bhatnagar M, Rhatigan M, Kincey J, Slater R, Leatherbarrow B: Low-dose midazolam infusion for oculoplastic surgery under local anesthesia. Eye 13:537-540, 1999

40.           Blake KD, Madden S, Taylor BW, Rees L: Psychological and clinical effects of renal biopsy performed using sedation. Pediatr Nephrol 10:693-695, 1996

41.           Bloomfield EL, Masaryk TJ, Caplin A, Obuchowski NA, Schubert A, Hayden J, Ebrahim ZY, Ruggieri PM, Goske MJ, Ross JS. Intravenous sedation for MR imaging of the brain and spine in children: pentobarbital versus propofol. Radiology 186:93-97, 1993

42.           Blouin RT, Conard PF, Perreault S, Gross JB: The effect of flumazenil on midalozam-induced depression of the ventilatory response to hypoxia during isohypercarbia.  Anesthesiology 78: 635-641, 1993

43.           Boldy DAR, English JSC, Lang GS, Hoare AM: Sedation for endoscopy. A comparison between diazepam, and diazepam plus pethidine with naloxone reversal. Br J Anaesth 56: 1109-1111, 1984

44.           Boldy DAR, Lever LR, Unwin PR, Spencer PA, Hoare AM: Sedation for endoscopy: Midazolam or diazepam and pethidine? Br J Anaesth 61:698-701, 1988

45.           Bowling TE, Hadjiminas CL, Polson RJ, Baron JH, Foale RA. Effects of supplemental oxygen on cardiac rhythm. Gut 34:1492-1497, 1993

46.           Brady CE, Harkleroad LE, Pierson WP. Alterations in oxygen saturation and ventilation after intravenous sedation for peritoneoscopy.  Arch Intern Med 149:1029-1032, 1989

47.           Bremerich A, Hierl T: Conscious midazolam sedation in third molar surgery--aspects of post-operative patient evaluation. Acta Stomatol Belg 92:101-104, 1995

48.           Brett I, Stewart D: The monitoring of patients undergoing intravenous midazolam/methohexital.  Anesth Prog 36:140-149, 1989.

49.           Breuer HWM, Charchut St;, Worth H. Effects of diagnostic procedures during fiberoptic bronchoscopy on heart rate, blood pressure, and blood gases.  Klin-Wochenschr 67:524-529, 1989

50.           Britt A, Devenyi AG, Burkhart KK, Close P, Weaver B: Use of flumazenil for reversal of conscious sedation in pediatrics. Gastrointest Endosc 41:334, 1995

51.           Brouillette DE, Leventhal R, Kumar S, Berman D, Kajani M, Yoo YK, Carra J, Tarter R, Van Theil DH. Midazolam versus diazepam for combined esophogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy.  Digestive Diseases & Sciences 34:1265-1271, 1989

52.           Buck ML, Blumer JL: Phenothiazine-associated apnea in two siblings. DICP, Ann Pharmacotherapy 25:244-246, 1991

53.           Burckart GJ, White TJ, Siegle RL, Jabbour JT, Ramey DR. Rectal thiopental versus an intramuscular cocktail for sedating children before computerized tomography.  Am J Hosp Pharm 37:222-224, 1989

54.           Burtin P, Daoud P, Jacqz Aigrain E, Mussat P, Moriette G: Hypotension with midazolam and fentanyl in the newborn. Lancet 337:1545-1546, 1991

55.           Byun MY, Fine NA, Lee JY, Mustoe TA: The clinical outcome of abdominoplasty performed under conscious sedation: increased use of fentanyl correlated with longer stay in outpatient unit. Plast Reconstr Surg 103:1260-1266, 1999

56.           Campbell RL, Ross GA, Campbell JR, Mourino AP: Comparison of oral chloral hydrate with intramuscular ketamine, meperidine, and promethazine for pediatric sedation--preliminary report. Anesth Prog 45:46-50, 1998

57.           Canning HB, Frost DE, McDonald DK, Joyner RW: Comparison of the use of nalbuphine and fentanyl during third molar surgery.  J Oral Maxillofac Surg 46:1048-1050, 1988

58.           Carbajal R, Simon N, Blanc P, Paupe A, Lenclen R, Oliver-Martin M: Rectal flumazenil to reverse midazolam sedation in children. Anesth Analg 82:895, 1996

59.           Carrougher JG, Kadakia S, Shaffer RT, Barrilleaux C: Venous complications of midazolam versus diazepam.  Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 39:396-399, 1993

60.           Carter AS, Bell GD, Coady T, Lee J, Morden A: Speed of reversal of midazolam-induced respiratory depression of flumazenil: a study in patients undergoing upper GI endoscopy. Acta Anaesth Scand 34(S92):59-64, 1990

61.           Casteel HB, Fiedorek SC, Kiel EA. Arterial blood oxygen desaturation in infants and children during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 36:489-493, 1990

62.           Chan I, Tan CL: Use of intravenous midazolam for sedation in children undergoing ward procedures. J Singapore Paediatric Soc 34:30-33, 1992

63.           Chang AC, Solinger MA, Yang DT, Chen YK: Impact of flumazenil on recovery after outpatient endoscopy: a placebo-controlled trial. Gastrointest Endosc 49:573-579, 1999

64.           Chin NM, Tai HY, Chin MK. Intravenous sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: Midazolam versus propofol.  Sin Med J 33:478-480, 1992

65.           Chuang E, Wenner WJ, Jr., Piccoli DA, Altschuler SM, Liacouras CA: Intravenous sedation in pediatric upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 42:156-160, 1995

66.           Chudnofsky CR, Weber JE, Stoyanoff PJ, Colone PD, Wilkerson MD, Hallinen DL, Jaggi FM, Boczar ME, Perry MA: A combination of midazolam and ketamine for procedural sedation and analgesia in adult emergency department patients. Acad Emerg Med 7(3):228-235, 2000

67.           Chudnofsky CR: Safety and efficacy of flumazenil in reversing conscious sedation in the emergency department. Emergency Medicine Conscious Sedation Study Group. Acad Emerg Med 4:944-950, 1997

68.           Clark MS, Lindenmuth JE, Jafek BW, Fryer GE, Jr., Goldberg JR: Reversal of central benzodiazepine effects by intravenous flumazenil. Anesth Prog 38:12-16, 1991

69.           Clark RNW, Rodrigo MRC: A comparative study of intravenous diazepam and midazolam for oral surgery.  J Oral Max Surg 44 (11), 860-3

70.           Cohen M, Eisig S, Kraut RA: Comparison of recovery of propofol and methohexital sedation using an infusion pump. Anesth Prog 43:9-13, 1996

71.           Conlong P, Rees W: The use of hypnosis in gastroscopy: a comparison with intravenous sedation. Postgrad Med J 75:223-225, 1999

72.           Cooper SA, Quinn PD, MacAfee K, McKenna D: Reversing intravenous sedation with flumazenil. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Path 72:2-9, 1991

73.           Corall IM, Strunin L, Ward ME, Mason SA, Alcalay M. Sedation for outpatient conservative dentistry. A trial of pentazocine supplementation to diazepam and local analgesia techniques. Anaesthesia 34:855-858, 1979

74.           Cote CJ, Karl HW, Notterman DA, Weinberg JA, McCloskey C. Adverse sedation events in pediatrics: analysis of medications used for sedation. Pediatrics 106(4):633-644, 2000

75.           Cote CJ, Notterman DA, Karl HW, Weinberg JA, McCloskey C: Adverse sedation events in pediatrics: a critical incident analysis of contributing factors. Pediatrics 105:805-814, 2000

76.           Cotsen MR, Donaldson JS, Uejima T, Morello FP: Efficacy of ketamine hydrochloride sedation in children for interventional radiologic procedures. AJR Am J Roentgenol 169:1019-1022, 1997

77.           Coughlin MW, Panuska HJ: Direct comparison of midazolam and diazepam for conscious sedation in outpatient oral surgery.  Anesthesia Progress 36:160-163, 1989

78.           Cragg AH, Smith TP, Berbaum KS, Nakagawa N. Randomized double-blind trial of midazolam/placebo and midazolam/fentanyl for sedation & analgesia in lower extremity angiography. American Journal of Roentgenology 157:173-176, 1991

79.           Croswell RJ, Dilley DC, Lucas WJ, Vann WF, Jr. A comparison of conventional versus electronic monitoring of sedated pediatric dental patients. Pediatr Dent 17:332-339, 1995

80.           Curtis L, Troop M, Sanders MD, Walsh GC, Reid RD, Logan K, Babcock K: Arterial oxygen desaturation following intravenous injection of midazolam.  J Am Assoc Nurse Anesth 57(3):244-249, 1989

81.           Dachs RJ, Innes GM: Intravenous ketamine sedation of pediatric patients in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 29:146-150, 1997

82.           Danielsen A, Olofsson J: Endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery. A long-term follow-up study. Acta Otolaryngol 116:611-619, 1996

83.           Davies CA, Sealey CM, Lawson JI, Grant IS: Reversal of midazolam sedation with flumazenil following conservative dentistry. J Dent 18:113-118, 1990

84.           Davila JM, Reiss RA, Jensen OE, Proskin H: Chloral hydrate-diazepam: Per os combination in treatment of disabled. NY State Dent J 57:45-47, 1991

85.           Davis DP, Hamilton RS, Webster TH: Reversal of midazolam-induced laryngospasm with flumazenil. Ann Emerg Med 32:263-265, 1998

86.           Dell RG, Cloote AH: Patient-controlled sedation during transvaginal oocyte retrieval: an assessment of patient acceptance of patient-controlled sedation using a mixture of propofol and alfentanil. Eur J Anaesthesiol 15:210-215, 1998

87.           Dies DF, Clarkston WK, Schratz CL: Intravenous ketorolac tromethamine versus meperidine for adjunctive sedation in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: a pilot study. Gastrointest Endosc 43:6-9, 1996

88.           Dinsmore SC: Approaching a 100% success rate using topical anesthesia with mild intravenous sedation in phacoemulsification procedures. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 27:935-938, 1996

89.           DiPalma JA, Herrera JL, Weis FR, Dark-Mezick DL, Brown RS: Alfentanil for conscious sedation during colonoscopy. South Med J 88:630-634, 1995

90.           Dolan E, Murray W, Ruddy M. Double-blind comparison of nalbuphine and meperidine in combination with diazepam for i.v. conscious sedation in oral surgery outpatients.  Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 66:536-539, 1988

91.           Doring KR. Evaluation of an alphaprodine-hydroxyzine combination as a sedative agent in the treatment of the pediatric dental patient. J Am Dent Assoc 111:567-576, 1985

92.           Dubois A, Balatoni E, Peeters JP, Baudoux M: Use of propofol for sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopies. Anaesthesia 43 (suppl):75-80, 1988

93.           Dunton AW, Schwam E, Pitman V, Leese P, Siegl J: The relationship between dose and duration of action of intrafenous flumazenil in reversing sedation induced by a continuous infusion of midazolam. Eur J Anaesth 2 (suppl):97-102, 1988

94.           Ellis S: Response to intravenous midazolam sedation in general dental practice. Br Dent J 180:417-420, 1996

95.           Evans JM, Hogg, MIJ, Lunn JN, Rosen M. Degree and duration of reversal by naloxone of effects of morphine in conscious subjects. Br Med J 15:589-91, 1974

96.           File SE, Skelly AM, Girdler NM: Midazolam-induced retrieval impairments revealed by the use of flumazenil: a study in surgical dental patients. J Psychopharmacol 6:81-87, 1992

97.           Finder RL, Moore PA, Close JM: Flumazenil reversal of conscious sedation induced with intravenous fentanyl and diazepam. Anesth Prog 42:11-16, 1995

98.           Findler M, Galili D, Meidan Z, Yakirevitch V, Garfunkel AA. Dental treatment in very high risk patients with active ischemic heart disease.  Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Path 76:298-300, 1993

99.           Finley GA, MacManus B, Sampson SE, Fernandez CV, Retallick R. Delayed seizures following sedation with propofol. Can J Anaesth 40:863-865, 1993

100.        Fishbaugh DF, Wilson S, Preisch JW, Weaver JM, 2nd: Relationship of tonsil size on an airway blockage maneuver in children during sedation. Pediatr Dent 19:277-281, 1997

101.        Fisher NC, Bailey S, Gibson JA: A prospective, randomized controlled trial of sedation vs. no sedation in outpatient diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Endoscopy 30:21-24, 1998

102.        Flogel CM, Ward DS, Wada DR, Ritter JW: The effects of larger-dose flumazenil on midazolam-induced ventilatory depression. Anesth Analg 77:1207-1214, 1993

103.        Forbes GM, Collins BJ: Nitrous oxide for colonoscopy: a randomized controlled study. Gastrointest Endosc 2000 Mar;51(3):271-277, 2000

104.        Froehlich F, Schwizer W, Thorens J, Kohler M, Gonvers JJ, Fried M: Conscious sedation for gastroscopy: patient tolerance and cardiorespiratory parameters. Gastroenterology 108:697-704, 1995

105.        Froehlich F, Thorens J, Schwizer W, Preisig M, Kohler M, Hays RD, Fried M, Gonvers JJ: Sedation and analgesia for colonoscopy: patient tolerance, pain, and cardiorespiratory parameters. Gastrointest Endosc 45:1-9, 1997

106.        Fukuta O, Braham RL, Yanase H, Atsumi N, Kurosu K: The sedative effect of intranasal midazolam administration in the dental treatment of patients with mental disabilities. Part 1. The effect of a 0.2 mg/kg dose.  J Clin Ped Dent 17:231-237, 1993

107.        Fulton SA, Mullen KD: Completion of upper endoscopic procedures despite paradoxical reaction to midazolam: a role for flumazenil? Am J Gastroenterol 95(3):809-811, 2000

108.        Galandiuk S, Ahmad P: Impact of sedation and resident teaching on complications of colonoscopy. Dig Surg 15:60-63, 1998

109.        Gan TJ, Ginsberg B, Glass PS, Fortney J, Jhaveri R, Perno R: Opioid-sparing effects of a low-dose infusion of naloxone in patient-administered morphine sulfate. Anesthesiology 87:1075-1081, 1997

110.        Geiger MJ, Wase A, Kearney MM, Brandon MJ, Kent V, Newby KH, Natale A: Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of deep sedation for electrophysiology procedures administered in the absence of an anesthetist. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 20:1808-1814, 1997

111.        Ghoneim MM, Dembo JB, Block RI. Time course of antagonism of sedative and amnesic effects of diazepam by flumazenil. Anesthesiology 70:899, 1989

112.        Gilger MA, Jeiven SD, Barrish JO, McCarroll LR: Oxygen desaturation and cardiac arrhythmias in children during esophagogastroduodenoscopy using conscious sedation.  Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 39:392-395, 1993

113.        Ginsberg GG, Lewis JH, Gallagher JE, Fleischer DE, Al-Kawas FH, Nguyen CC, Mundt DJ, Benjamin SB: Diazepam versus midazolam for colonoscopy: a prospective evaluation of predicted versus actual dosing requirements. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 38:651-656, 1992

114.        Gjorup I, Forrest M, Vilien M, Andersen B: The effect of the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil on the sequels of diazepam given before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Scand J Gastroenterol 26:714-716, 1991

115.        Glaser J, Blanton P, Thrash W: Incidence and extent of venous sequelae with intravenous diazepam utilizing a standardized conscious sedation technique. J Periodontol 53(11):700-703, 1982

116.        Gombar KK, Dhall JC, Suri RP, Singh B, Gombar S: Effect of diazepam sedation on arterial oxygen saturation during esophagogastroduodenoscopy: a placebo-controlled study. Indian J Gastroenterol 15:40-42, 1996

117.        Goodson JM, Moore PA. Life-threatening reactions after pedodontic sedation: An assessment of narcotic, local anesthetic, and antiemetic drug interaction. J Am Dent Assoc 107:239-245, 1983

118.        Graff KJ, Kennedy RM, Jaffe DM: Conscious sedation for pediatric orthopaedic emergencies. Pediatr Emerg Care 12:31-35, 1996

119.        Graham JL, McCaughey W, Bell PF. Nalbuphine and pentazocine in an opioid-benzodiazepine sedative technique: a double-blind comparison.  Ann Royal Coll Surg Eng 70:200-204, 1988

120.        Green SM, Clark R, Hostetler MA, Cohen M, Carlson D, Rothrock SG: Inadvertent ketamine overdose in children: clinical manifestations and outcome. Ann Emerg Med 34:492-497, 1999

121.        Green SM, Hummel CB, Wittlake WA, Rothrock SG, Hopkins GA, Garrett W: What is the optimal dose of intramuscular ketamine for pediatric sedation? Acad Emerg Med 6:21-26, 1999

122.        Green SM, Nakamura R, Johnson NE: Ketamine sedation for pediatric procedures: Part 1, A prospective series.  Ann Emerg Med 19:1024-1032, 1990

123.        Green SM, Rothrock SG, Harris T, Hopkins GA, Garrett W, Sherwin T: Intravenous ketamine for pediatric sedation in the emergency department: safety profile with 156 cases. Acad Emerg Med 5:971-976, 1998

124.        Green SM, Rothrock SG, Hestdalen R, Ho M, Lynch EL: Ketamine sedation in mentally disabled adults. Acad Emerg Med 6:86-87, 1999

125.        Green SM, Rothrock SG, Lynch EL, Ho M, Harris T, Hestdalen R, Hopkins GA, Garrett W, Westcott K: Intramuscular ketamine for pediatric sedation in the emergency department: safety profile in 1,022 cases. Ann Emerg Med 31:688-697, 1998

126.        Gremse DA, Kumar S, Sacks AI: Conscious sedation with high-dose midazolam for pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy. South Med J 90:821-825, 1997

127.        Gross JB, Blouin RT, Zandsberg S, Conard PF, Haussler J: Effect of flumazenil on ventilatory drive during sedation with midazolam and alfentanil. Anesthesiology 85:713-720, 1996

128.        Gross JB, Long WB. Nasal oxygen alleviates hypoxemia in colonoscopy patients sedated with midazolam and meperidine.  Gastrointest Endosc 36:26-29, 1990

129.        Gross JB, Weller RS, Conard PL: Flumazenil antagonism of midazolam-induced ventilatory depression.  Anesthesiology 75:179-185, 1991

130.        Gruber RP, Morley B: Ketamine-assisted intravenous sedation with midazolam: benefits and potential problems. Plast Reconstr Surg 104:1823-5; discussion 1826-7, 1999

131.        Haines DJ, Bibbey D, Green JR: The effects of flumazenil on alertness and hypoxia in elderly patients after ERCP. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 6:745-750, 1992

132.        Haines DJ, Bibbey D, Green JRB: Does nasal oxygen reduce the cardiorespiratory problems experienced by elderly patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography?.  Gut 33:973-975, 1992

133.        Hamid SK, McCann N, McArdle L, Asbury AJ: Comparison of patient-controlled sedation with either methohexitone or propofol. Br J Anaesth 77:727-730, 1996

134.        Hampl KF, Marsch SC, Erb T, Drewe J, Schneider MC: Intravenous sedation for retrobulbar injection and eye surgery: diazepam and/or propofol? Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 40:53-58, 1996

135.        Haney KL, McWhorter AG, Seale NS: An assessment of the success of meperidine and promethazine sedation in medically compromised children. J Dentistry Child 60:288-294, 1993

136.        Hanno PM, Wein AJ: Anesthetic techniques for cystoscopy in men. J Urology 130:1070-1072, 1983

137.        Hardeman J, Sabol S, Goldwasser M: Incidence of hypoxemia in the postanesthetic recovery room in patients having undergone intravenous sedation for outpatient oral surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 48(9):942-944, 1990

138.        Hart LS, Berns SD, Houck CS, Boenning DA: The value of end-tidal CO2 monitoring when comparing three methods of conscious sedation for children undergoing painful procedures in the emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care 13:189-193, 1997

139.        Hartke R, Gonzalez Rothi R, Abbey N: Midazolam-associated alterations in cardiorespiratory function during colonoscopy. Gastro Endosc 35(3):232-2381989

140.        Hasty MF, Vann WF, Jr., Dilley DC, Anderson JA: Conscious sedation of pediatric dental patients: an investigation of chloral hydrate, hydroxyzine pamoate, and meperidine vs. chloral hydrate and hydroxyzine pamoate.  Ped Dent 13:10-19, 1991

141.        Haug RH, Reifeis RL: A prospective evaluation of the value of preoperative laboratory testing for office anesthesia and sedation. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 57:16-20, 1999

142.        Haydon GH, Dillon J, Simpson KJ, Thomas H, Hayes PC: Hypoxemia during diagnostic laparoscopy: a prospective study. Gastrointest Endosc 44:124-128, 1996

143.        Heiman DR, Tolliver BA, Weis FR, O'Brien BL, DiPalma JA: Patient-controlled anesthesia for colonoscopy using propofol: results of a pilot study. South Med J 91:560-564, 1998

144.        Herman F: Avoidance of sedation during total colonoscopy. Dis Colon Rectum 33: 70-72, 1990

145.        Herman LL, Kurtz RC, McKee KJ, Sun M, Thaler HT, Winawer J: Risk factors associated with vasovagal reactions during colonoscopy. Gastro Endoscopy 39:388-91, 1993

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