PracticeGuidelines for Management of the Difficult Airway: An Updated Report

American Society of Anesthesiologists




1.                  Abou Madi MN, Trop D: Pulling versus guiding: a modification of retrograde guided intubation. Can J Anaesth 36:336-339, 1989

2.                  Acalovschi I, Miclescu A, Bugov L: The effects of propofol on laryngeal reactivity and the haemodynamic response to laryngeal mask insertion. Eur J Anaesth 12:351-356, 1995

3.                  Agro F, Brimacombe J, Brain AI, Marchionni L, Cataldo R: The intubating laryngeal mask for maxillo-facial trauma. Eur J Anaesth 16:263-264, 1999

4.                  Agro F, Brimacombe J, Carassiti M, Marchionni L, Cataldo R: The intubating laryngeal mask. Clinical appraisal of ventilation and blind tracheal intubation in 110 patients. Anaesthesia 53:1084-1090, 1998

5.                  Agro F, Brimacombe J, Carassiti M, Morelli A, Giampalmo M, Cataldo R: Use of a lighted stylet for intubation via the laryngeal mask airway. Can J Anaesth 45:556-560, 1998

6.                  Agro F, Brimacombe J, Verghese C, Carassiti M, Cataldo R: Laryngeal mask airway and incidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux in paralysed patients undergoing ventilation for elective orthopaedic surgery. Br J Anaesth 81:537-539, 1998

7.                  Ahmad NS, Yentis SM: Laryngeal mask airway and lingual nerve injury. Anaesthesia 51:707-708, 1996

8.                  Ainsworth QP, Howell TH: Transilluminated tracheal intubation. Br J Anaesth 62:494-497, 1989

9.                  Akbar AN, Muzi M, Lopatka CW, Ebert TJ: Neurocirculatory responses to intubation with either an endotracheal tube or laryngeal mask airway in humans. J Clin Anesth 8:194-197, 1996

10.              Akhtar TM, McMurray P, Kerr WJ, Kenny GN: A comparison of laryngeal mask airway with tracheal tube for intraocular opthalmic surgery. Anaesthesia 47:668-671, 1992

11.              Akhtar TM, Street MK: Risk of aspiration with the laryngeal mask. Br J Anaesth 72:447-450, 1994

12.              Akinyemi OO: Complications of guided blind endotracheal intubation. Anaesthesia 34:590-592, 1979

13.              Alexander CA, Leach AB: Incidence of sore throats with the laryngeal mask. Anaesthesia 44:791, 1989

14.              Alexander R, Hodgson P, Lomax D, Bullen C: A comparison of the laryngeal mask airway and Guedel airway, bag and facemask for manual ventilation following formal training. Anaesthesia 48:231-234, 1993

15.              Alexander R, Swales H, Pickford A, Smith GB: The laryngeal mask airway: safe in the x-ray department? Anaesthesia 48:734, 1993

16.              Allen JG, Flower EA: The Brain laryngeal mask. An alternative to difficult intubation. Br Dent J 168:202-204, 1990

17.              Amar D, Brodman LE, Winikoff SA, Hollinger I: An alternative oxygen delivery system for infants and children in the post-anaesthesia care unit. Can J Anaesth 38:49-53, 1991

18.              Aoyama K, Nagaoka E, Takenaka I, Kadoya T: The McCoy laryngoscope expands the laryngeal aperture in patients with difficult intubation. Anesthesiology 92:1855-1856, 2000.

19.              Arndt GA, Topp J, Hannah J, MCDowell TS, Lesko A: Intubation via the LMA using a Cook retrograde intubation kit. Can J Anaesth 45:257-260, 1998

20.              Aro L, Takki S, Aromaa U: Technique for difficult intubation. Br J Anaesth 43:1081-1083, 1971

21.              Artru AA, Schultz AB, Bonneu JJ: Modification of an eschmann introducer to permit measuremetn of end-tidal carbon dioxide. Anesth Analg 68:129-131, 1989

22.              Asai T, Barclay K, McBeth C, Vaughan RS: Cricoid pressure applied after placement of the laryngeal mask prevents gastric insufflation but inhibits ventilation. Br J Anaesth 76:772-776, 1996

23.              Asai T, Eguchi Y, Murao K, Niitsu T, Shingu K: Intubating laryngeal mask for fibreoptic intubation - particularly useful during neck stabilization. Can J Anesth 47:843-848, 2000

24.              Asai T, Fujise K, Uchida M: Use of the laryngeal mask in a child with tracheal stenosis. Anesthesiology 75:903-904, 1991

25.              Asai T, Hirose T, Shingu K: Failed tracheal intubation using a laryngoscope and intubating laryngeal mask. Can J Anesth 47:325-328, 2000

26.              Asai T, Latto IP: Use of the lighted stylet for tracheal intubation via the laryngeal mask airway. Br J Anaesth 75:503-504, 1995

27.              Asai T, Matsumoto S, Shingu K: Use of the McCoy laryngoscope or fingers to facilitate fibrescope-aided tracheal intubation. Anaesthesia 53:903-909, 1998

28.              Asai T, Murao K, Tsutsumi T, Shingu K: Ease of tracheal intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask during manual in-line head and neck stabilisation. Anaesthesia 55:82-85, 2000

29.              Asai T, Oldham T, Latto IP: Unexpected difficulty in the lighted stylet-aided tracheal intubation via the laryngeal mask. Br J Anaesth 78:111-112, 1997

30.              Asai T, Shingo K, Latto IP: Use of the lighted stylet for tracheal intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask. Anesth Analg 87:979, 1998

31.              Asai T, Shingu K: Tracheal intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask in a patient with a fixed flexed neck and deviated larynx. Anaesthesia 53:1199-1208, 1998

32.              Asai T, Shingu K: Tracheal intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask in patients with unstable necks. Acta Anaesth Scand 45:818-822, 2001.

33.              Asai T: Use of the laryngeal mask for tracheal intubation in patients at increased risk of aspiration of gastric contents. Anesthesiology 77:1029-1030, 1992

34.              Asai, T, Matsumoto H Shingu K: Awake tracheal intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask. Can J Anesth 46:182-184, 1999

35.              Audenaert SM, Montgomery CL, Stone B, Akins RE, Lock RL: Retrograde-assisted fiberoptic tracheal intubation in children with difficult airways. Anesth Analg 73:660-664, 1991

36.              Avidan MS, Harvey A, Chitkara N, Ponte J: The intubating laryngeal mask airway compared with direct laryngoscopy. Br J Anaesth 83:615-617, 1999

37.              Azizkhan RG, Dudgeon DL, Buck JR, Colombani PM, Yaster M, Nichols D, Civin C, Kramer SS, Haller JAJ: Life-threatening airway obstruction as a complication to the management of mediastinal masses in children. J Pediatr Surg 20:816-822, 1985

38.              Bahk JH, Han SM, Kim SD. Management of difficult airways with a laryngeal mask airway under propofol anaesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth 9:163-166, 1999

39.              Bailie R, Barnett MB, Fraser JF: The Brain laryngeal mask. A comparative study with the nasal mask in paediatric dental outpatient anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 46:358-360, 1991

40.              Baines D, Keneally J: Anaesthetic implications of the mucopolysaccharidoses: a fifteen-year experience in a children's hospital. Anaesth Intens Care 11:198-202, 1983

41.              Baird MB, Major AH, Goodwin APL: Removal of the laryngeal mask airway: factors affecting the incidence of post-operative adverse respiratory events in 300 patients. Eur J Anaesth 16:251-256, 1999

42.              Baraka A, Choueiry P, Salem MR: The esophageal detector device in the morbidly obese. Anesth Analg 77:400, 1993

43.              Baraka A, Salem MR: The combitube oesophageal-tracheal double lumen airway for difficult intubation. Can J Anaesth 40:1222-1223, 1993

44.              Baraka A: Laryngeal mask airway in the cannot-intubate, cannot-ventilate situation. Anesthesiology 79:1151-1152, 1993

45.              Baraka A: Transtracheal jet ventilation during fiberoptic intubation under general anesthesia. Anesth Analg 65:1091-1092, 1986

46.              Baraka AS, Taha SK, Aouad MT, El-Khatib M, Kawkabani NI: Preoxygenation: Comparison of maximal breathing and tidal volume breathing techniques. Anesthesiology 91:612-616, 1999

47.              Barclay K, Wall T, Wareham K, Asai T: Intra-ocular pressure changes in patients with glaucoma. Comparison between the laryngeal mask airway and tracheal tube. Anaesthesia 49:159-162, 1994

48.              Barker P, Langton JA, Murphy PJ, Rowbotham DJ: Regurgitation of gastric contents during general anaesthesia using the laryngeal mask airway. Br J Anaesth 69:314-315, 1992

49.              Barnett R, Gallant B, Fossey S, Finegan B: Nitrous oxide environmental pollution. A comparison between face mask, laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube. Can J Anaesth 39:A151, 1992

50.              Barriot P, Riou B: Retrograde technique for tracheal intubation in trauma patients. Crit Care Med 16:712-713, 1988

51.              Baskett PJF, Parr MJA, Nolan JP: The intubating laryngeal mask. Results of a multicentre trial with experience of 500 cases. Anaesthesia 53:1174-1179, 1998

52.              Bellhouse CP, Dor'e C: Criteria for estimating likelihood of difficulty of endotracheal intubation with the Macintosh laryngoscope. Anaesth Intens Care 16:329-337, 1988

53.              Bellhouse CP: An angulated laryngoscope for routine and difficult tracheal intubation. Anesthesiology 69:126-129, 1988

54.              Benumof JL, Scheller MS: The importance of transtracheal jet ventilation in the management of the difficult airway. Anesthesiology 71:769-778, 1989

55.              Berns SD: Oral intubation using a lighted stylet vs direct laryngoscopy in older children with cervical immobilization. Acad Emerg Med 3:34-40, 1996

56.              Berry A, Brimacombe J, Keller C, Verghese C: Pulmonary airway resistance with the endotracheal tube versus laryngeal mask airway in paralyzed anesthetized adult patients. Anesthesiology 90:395-397, 1999

57.              Berry AM, Verghese C: Changes in pulmonary mechanics during IPPV with the laryngeal mask airway compared to the tracheal tube. Anesth Analg 78:S38, 1994

58.              Berry CB, Myles PS: Pre-oxygenation in healthy volunteers -- a graph of oxygen "washin" using end tidal oxygraphy. Br J Anaesth 72:116-118, 1994

59.              Berthelsen P, Prytz S, Jacobsen E: Two-stage fiberoptic nasotracheal intubation in infants: a new approach to difficult pediatric intubation. Anesthesiology 63:457-458, 1985

60.              Berthoud M, Read DH, Norman J: Pre-oxygenation: how long? Anaesthesia 38:96-102, 1983

61.              Berthoud MC, Peacock JE, Reilly CS: Effectiveness of preoxygenation in morbidly obese patients. Br J Anaesth 67:464-466, 1991

62.              Beveridge ME: Laryngeal mask anaesthesia for repair of cleft palate. Anaesthesia 44:656-657, 1989

63.              Bigenzahn W, Pesau B, Frass M: Emergency ventilation using Combitube in cases of difficult intubation. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 248:129-131, 1991

64.              Bishop M, Kharasch ED: Is the Combitube a useful emergency device for anesthesiologists? Anesth Analg 86:1141-1142, 1998

65.              Bittar D: Respiratory obstruction associated with induction of general anesthesia in a patient with mediastinal Hodgkin's disease. Anesth Analg 54:399-403, 1975

66.              Blanco G, Melman E, Cuairan V, Moyao D, Ortiz-Monasterio F: Fibreoptic nasal intubation in children with anticipated and unanticipated difficult ntubation. Paediatr Anaesth 11:49-53, 2001

67.              Boisson-Bertrand D, Hannhart B, Rousselot JM, Duvivier C, Quilici N, Peslin R: Comparative effects of laryngeal mask and tracheal tube on total respiratory resistance in anaesthetised patients. Anaesthesia 49:846-849, 1994

68.              Borland LM, Casselbrant M: The Bullard laryngoscope. A new indirect oral laryngoscope (pediatric version). Anesth Analg 70:105-108, 1990

69.              Borland LM, Swan DM, Leff S: Difficult pediatric endotracheal intubation: a new approach to the retrograde technique. Anesthesiology 55:577-578, 1981

70.              Bourke DL, Biehl J: The laryngotracheal topical anesthesia kit with capnography for difficult endotracheal intubation. Anesth Analg 88:943-945, 1999

71.              Bozeman WP, Hexter D, Liang HK, Kelen GD: Esophageal detector device versus detection of end-tidal carbon dioxide level in emergency intubation. Ann Emerg Med 27:595-599, 1996

72.              Brain AI, McGhee TD, McAteer EJ, Thomas A, Abu Saad MA, Bushman JA: The laryngeal mask airway. Development and preliminary trials of a new type of airway. Anaesthesia 40:356-361, 1985

73.              Brain AI: The laryngeal mask and the oesophageous. Anaesthesia 46:701-702, 1991

74.              Brain AI: The laryngeal mask--a new concept in airway management. Br J Anaesth 55:801-805, 1983

75.              Brain AI: Three cases of difficult intubation overcome by the laryngeal mask airway. Anaesthesia 40:353-355, 1985

76.              Brain AIJ, Verghese C, Addy EV, Kapila A, Brimacombe J: The intubating laryngeal mask. II: a preliminary clinical report of a new means of intubating the trachea. Br J Anaesth 79:704-709, 1997

77.              Brain AIJ, Verghese C, Strube PJ: The LMA "ProSeal" - a laryngeal mask with an oesophageal vent. Br J Anaesth 84:650-654, 2000

78.              Branthwaite MA: An unexpected complication of the intubating laryngeal mask. Anaesthesia 54:166-171, 1999

79.              Braude N, Clements EA, Hodges UM, Andrews BP: The pressor response and laryngral mask insertion: a comparison with tracheal intubation. Anaesthesia 44:551-554, 1989

80.              Brechner VL: Unusual problems in the management of airways: flexion-extension mobility of the cervical vertebrae. Anesth Analg 47:362-373, 1968

81.              Brimacombe J, Berry A: Aspiration and the laryngeal mask airway: a survey of Australian intensive care units. Aneasth Intens Care 20:534-535, 1992

82.              Brimacombe J, Berry A: Laryngeal mask airway cuff pressure and position during anaesthesia lasting one to two hours. Can J Anaesth 41:589-593, 1994

83.              Brimacombe J, Berry A: Mallampatti classification and laryngeal mask insertion. Anaesthesia 48:347, 1996

84.              Brimacombe J, Keller C, Fullekurg B, Agro F, Rosenblatt W, Dierdorf SF, Garcia de Lucas E, Capdevilla X, Brimacombe N: A multicenter study comparing the ProSeal and classic laryngeal mask airway in anesthetized, nonparalyzed patients. Anesthesiology 96:289-295, 2002

85.              Brimacombe J, Keller C: The ProSeal laryngeal mask airway: a randomized, crossover study with the standard laryngeal mask airway in paralyzed, anesthetized patients. Anesthesiology 93:104-109, 2000

86.              Brimacombe J, Newell S, Bergin A, McCarthy J, Barry J: The laryngeal mask for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. Anesth Analg 91:635-636, 2000

87.              Brimacombe J, Sher M, Laing D, Berry A: The laryngeal mask airway: a new technique for fiberoptic guided vocal cord biopsy. J Clin Anesth 8:273-275, 1996

88.              Brimacombe J, Tucker P, Simons S: The laryngeal mask airway for awake diagnostic bronchoscopy: a retrospective study of 200 consecutive patients. Eur J Anaesth 12:357-361, 1995

89.              Brimacombe J: Analysis of 1500 laryngeal mask users by one anaesthetist in adults undergoing routine anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 51:76-80, 1996

90.              Brimacombe J: Difficult airway management with the intubating laryngeal mask. Anesth Analg 85:1173-1175, 1997

91.              Brimacombe JR, Brimacombe JC, Berry AM, Morris R, Mecklem D, Clarke G, Barry J, Kirk T: A comparison of the laryngeal mask airway and cuffed oropharyngeal airway in anesthetized adult patients. Anesth Analg 87:147-152, 1998

92.              Brimacombe JR: Positive pressure ventilation with the size 5 laryngeal mask. J Clin Anesth 9:113-117, 1997

93.              Brock-Utne JG, Downing JW, Seedat F: Laryngeal oedema associated with pre-eclampic toxaemia. Anaesthesia 32:556-558, 1977

94.              Brodrick PM, Webster NR, Nunn JF: The laryngeal mask airway. A study of 100 patients during spontaneous breathing. Anaesthesia 44:238-241, 1989

95.              Brull SJ, Wiklund R, Ferris C, Connelly NR, Ehrenwerth J, Silverman DG: Facilitation of fiberoptic orotracheal intubation with a flexible tracheal tube. Anesth Analg 78:746-748, 1994

96.              Bryson TK, Benumof JL, Ward CF: The esophageal obturator airway: a clinical comparison to ventilation with a mask and oropharyngeal airway. Chest 74:537-539, 1978

97.              Buckland RW, Pedley J. Lingual thyroid--a threat to the airway. Anaesthesia 55:1103-1105, 2000

98.              Bucx MJ, Snijders CJ, van der Vegt MH, Holstein JD, Stijnen T: Reshaping the Macintosh blade using biomechanical modelling. a prospective comparative study in patients. Anaesthesia 52:662-667, 1997

99.              Burnett YL, Brennan MP, Salem MR: Controlled ventilation and the laryngeal mask airway: effect on ETCO2, O2, PIP and gastric secretions in pediatric patients. Anesthesiology 81:A1320, 1994

100.          Butler FS, Cirillo AA: Retrograde tracheal intubation. Anesth Analg 39:333-338, 1960

101.          Butler PJ, Dhara SS: Prediction of difficult laryngoscopy: an assessment of the thyromental distance and the Mallampati predictive tests. Anaesth Intens Care 20:139-142, 1992

102.          Butler PJ, Mujnro HM, Kenny MB: Preoxygenation in children using expired oxygraphy. Br J anaesth 77:333-334, 1996

103.          Calder I, Calder J, Crockard HA: Radiological prediction of difficult intubation: the posterior of CO-1 and C1-2 gaps. Anesthesiology 75:A190, 1991

104.          Calder I, Ordman AJ, Jack owski A, Crockard HA: The Brain laryngeal mask airway: an alternative to emergency tracheal intubation. Anaesthesia 45:137-139, 1990

105.          Campbell JR: The laryngeal mask: cautionary tales. Anaesthesia 45:167-168, 1990

106.          Capistrano Baruh E, Wenig B, Steinberg L, Stegnjajic A, Baruh S: Laryngeal web: a cause of difficult endotracheal intubation. Anesthesiology 57:123-125, 1982

107.          Carden E, Becker G, Hamood HL: Percutaneous jet ventilation. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 85:652-655, 1976

108.          Carlson CA, Perkins HM, Veltkamp S: Solving a difficult intubation. Anesthesiology 64:537-538, 1986

109.          Carmicheal FJ, Cruise CJE, Crago RR, Paluck S: Preoxygenation: A study of denitrogenation. Anesth Analg 68:406-409, 1989

110.          Carr RJ, Belany KG: Clinical assessment of the Augustine guide for endotracheal intubation. Anesth Analg 78:983-987, 1994

111.          Casati A, Fanelli G, Torri G: Physiological dead space/tidal volume ratio during face mask, laryngeal mask, and cuffed oropharyngeal airway spontaneous ventilation. J Clin Anesth 10:652-655, 1998

112.          Casthely PA, Landesman S, Fyman PN, Ergin A, Griepp R, Wolf GL: Retrograde intubation in patients undergoing open heart surgery. Can Anaesth Soc J 32:661-664, 1985

113.          Castresana MR, Stefansson S, Cancel AR, Hague KJ: Use of the laryngeal mask airway during thoracotomy in a pediatric patient with Cri-du-Chat syndrome. Anesth Analg 78:810, 1994

114.          Chadd GD, Ackers JWL, Bailey PM: Difficult intubation aided by the laryngeal mask airway. Anaesthesia 44:1015, 1989

115.          Chadwick I, Vohra A: Anesthesia for emergency caesarean section using the Brain laryngeal mask airway. Anaesth 44:261-262, 1989

116.          Chan CS: Anaesthetic management during repair of tracheo-oesophageal fistula. Anaesthesia 39:158-160, 1984

117.          Chan WE, Kong CF, Kong CS, Hwang NC, Ip-Yam PC: The intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA): initial experience in Singapore. Br J Anaesth 81:610-611, 1998

118.          Cheng KI, Tang CS, Tsai EM, Wu CH, Lee JN. Correlation of arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide in spontaneously breathing patients during ambulatory gynecologic laparoscopy. J Formos Med Assoc 98:814-819, 1999

119.          Chhibber AK, Kolano JW, Roberts WA: Relationship between end-tidal and arterial carbon-dioxide with laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tubes in children. Anesth Analg 82:247-250, 1996

120.          Chisholm DG, Calder I: Experience with the McCoy laryngoscope in difficult laryngoscopy. Anaesthesia 52:906-908, 1997

121.          Choiniere A, Girard F, Boudreault D, Ruel M, Girard DC: Voluntary hyperventilation before a rapid-sequence induction of anesthesia does not decrease postintubation PaCO2. Anesth Analg 93:1277-1280, 2001

122.          Cohen SM, Laurito CE, Segil LJ: Oral exam to predict difficult intubations: a large prospective study. Anesthesiology 73:A937, 1989

123.          Cohn AI, McGraw SR, King WH: Awake intubation of the adult trachea using the Bullard laryngoscope. Can J Anaesth 42:246-248, 1995

124.          Cohn AI, Zornow MH: Awake endotracheal intubation in patients with cervical spine disease: a comparison of the Bullard laryngoscope and the fiberoptic bronchoscope. Anesth Analg 81:1283-1286, 1995

125.          Cole AF, Mallon JS, Rolbin SH, Ananthanarayan C: Fiberoptic intubation using anesthetized, paralyzed, apneic patients. Results of a resident training program. Anesthesiology 84:1101-1106, 1996

126.          Conti J, Smith D: Haemodynamic responses to extubation after cardiac surgery with and without continued sedation. Br J Anaesth 80:834-836, 1998

127.          Cook TM, Baylis RJ, Marjot R: Nasal fibreoptic tracheal intubation in anaesthetised patients breathing via a modified laryngeal mask airway. Anaesthesia 53:975-979, 1998

128.          Cook TM, Tuckey JP: A comparison between the Macintosh and the McCoy laryngoscope blades. Anaesthesia 51:977-980, 1996

129.          Coonan TJ, Hope CE, Howes WJ, Holness RO, MacInnis EL: Ankylosis of the temporo-mandibular joint after temporal craniotomy: a cause of difficult intubation. Can Anaesth Soc J 32:158-160, 1985

130.          Cooper SD, Benumof JL, Ozaki GT: Evaluation of the Bullard laryngoscope using the new intubating stylet: comparison with conventional laryngoscopy. Anesth Analg 79:965-970, 1994

131.          Cork RC, Depa RM, Standen JR: Prospective comparison of use of the laryngeal mask and endotracheal tube for ambulatory surgery. Anesth Analg 79:719-727, 1994

132.          Cote CJ, Szyfelbein SK, Goudsouzian NG, Welch JP: Intraoperative events diagnosed by expired carbon dioxide monitoring in children. Can Anaesth Soc J 33:315-320, 1986

133.          Criswell J, John R: The laryngeal mask: cautionary tales. Anaesthesia 45:168, 1990

134.          Cros AM, Boudey C, Esteben D, Malacic M, Dardel E: Intubation vs laryngeal mask: incidence of desaturations and spasms during adenoidectomy. Anesthesiology 79:A1155, 1993

135.          Cros AM, Colombani S: Preliminary study of intubation with a new laryngeal mask for difficult intubation. Anesthesiology 87:A482, 1997

136.          Cros AM, Pitti R, Conil C, Giraud MD, Verhulst J: Severe dysphonia after use of a laryngeal mask airway. Anesthesiology 86:498-500, 1997

137.          Cruickshanks GF, Brown S, Chitayat D: Anesthesia for Freeman-Sheldon syndrome using a laryngeal mask airway. Can J Anaesth 46:783-787, 1999

138.          Cyna AM, MacLeod DM: The laryngeal mask: cautionary tales. Anaesthesia 45:167, 1990

139.          Daley MD, Norman PH, Colmenares ME, Sandler AN: Hypoxaemia in adults in the post-anaesthesia care unit. Can J Anaesth 38:740-746, 1991

140.          Darling JR, Kaohan M, Murray JM: A split laryngeal mask as an aid to training in fibreoptic tracheal intubation. A comparison with the Berman II intubating airway. Anaesthesia 48:1079-1082, 1993

141.          Dashfield AK, Bree SE, Weiss AM, Langton JA: The site of airway irritation during induction of anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 52:1106-1110, 1997

142.          Daum RE, Jones DJ: Fibreoptic intubation in Klippel-Feil syndrome. Anaesthesia 43:18-21, 1988

143.          Davies PR, Tighe SQM, Greenslade GL, Evans GH: Laryngeal mask airway and tracheal tube insertion by unskilled personnel. Lancet 336:977-979, 1990

144.          Daya H, Fawcett WJ, Weir N: Vocal fold palsy after use of the laryngeal mask airway. J Laryngol Otol 110:383-384, 1996

145.          De Vlieger J, Soetens M, Van der Donck A: Sore throat with the laryngeal mask: does the lubricant matter? Acta Anaesth Belg 47:195-198, 1996

146.          Debo RF, Colonna D, Dewerd G, Gonzalez C: Cricoarytenoid subluxation: complication of blind intubation with a lighted-stylet. Ear Nose Throat J 68:517-520, 1989

147.          Delaney KA, Hessler R: Emergency flexible fiberoptic nasotracheal intubation: a report of 60 cases. Ann Emerg Med 17:919-926, 1988

148.          deLima LG, Bishop MJ: Lung laceration after tracheal extubation over a plastic tube changer. Anesth Analg 73:350-351, 1991

149.          Deller A, Schreiber MN, Gromer J, Ahnefeld FW: Difficult intubation: incidence and predictability.  A prospective study of 8,284 patients. Anesthesiology 73:A1054, 1990

150.          DeMello WF, Kocan M: The laryngeal mask in failed intubation. Anaesthesia 45:689-690, 1990

151.          Denman WT, Hayes M, Higgins D, Wilkinson DJ: The Fenem CO2 detector device. An apparatus to prevent unnoticed oesophageal intubation. Anaesthesia 45:465-467, 1990

152.          Denny NM, Gadelrab R: Complications following general anaesthesia for cataract surgery: a comparison of the laryngeal mask airway with tracheal intubation. J R Soc Med 86:521-522, 1993

153.          Deroy R, Ghoris M: The Combitube elective anesthetic airway management in a patient with cervical spine fracture. Anesth Analg 87:1441-1442, 1998

154.          Devitt JH, Wenstone R, Noel AG, O'Donnell MP: The laryngeal mask airway and positive-pressure ventilation. Anesthesiology 80:550-555, 1994

155.          Dich-Neilsen JO, Nagel P: Flexible fibreoptic bronchoscopy via the laryngeal mask. Acta Anaesthes Scand 37:17-19, 1993

156.          Dimitriou V, Voyagis GS, Brimacombe JR: Flexible lightwand-guided tracheal intubation with the intubating laryngeal mask Fastrach in adults after unpredicted failed laryngoscope-guided tracheal intubation. Anesthesiology 96:296-299, 2002

157.          Dimitriou V, Voyagis GS, Douma A: Unexpected resistance during tracheal tube insertion through the intubating laryngeal mask. Eur J Anaesth 16:419-420, 1999

158.          Dimitriou V, Voyagis GS: Blind intubation via the ILMA: what about accidental oesophageal intubation? Br J Anaesth 82:478-479, 1999

159.          Dimitriou V, Voyagis GS: Light-guided tracheal intubation using a prototype illuminated flexible catheter through the intubating laryngeal mask. Eur J Anaesth 16:448-453, 1999

160.          Dimitriou V, Voyagis GS: Use of an illuminated flexible catheter for light-guided tracheal intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask by nurses. Eur J Anaesth 17:46-49, 2000

161.          Dingley J, Whitehead MJ, Wareham K: A comparative study of the incidence of sore throat with the laryngeal mask airway. Anaesthesia 49:251-254, 1994

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