?If physicians would read two articles per day out of the six million medical articles published annually, in one year, they would fall 82 centuries behind in their reading.? Miser WF. Critical appraisal of the literature. J Am Board Fam Pract 1999;12(4):315-33.


This review covers a wide range of topics from the obstetric anesthesia, obstetrics, and newborn medicine literature published in 2004.? It was produced by a combination of search techniques including hand searches of the table of contents of journals listed below as well as key word electronic searches of Pub Med, LEXIS/NEXIS, Cochrane Database, and Science Citation index.? Although this syllabus is not meant to be exhaustive nor does it represent even a small proportion (<10%) of the references published in 2004, it is intended to provide a nidus for individual research and furthering clinical care.? If I have failed to cite a reference or have misconstrued data, please accept my sincerest apologies.




Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica???????????????????????????????????? Fertility and Sterility?????????????????????????????

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica??????????????? ??????????? International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia

Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavica? ??????????? JAMA

American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology??????????? Journal of Clinical Anesthesia

Anaesthesia????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Journal of Pediatrics

Anaesthesia and Intensive Care???????????????????????? ??????????? Lancet

Anesthesia and Analgesia????????????????????????????????????????????? Nature

Anesthesiology???????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????? New England Journal of Medicine

Anesthesiology Clinics of North America?????????????????????? Obstetrics and Gynecology

ASA Newsletter?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Obstetrics and Gynecologic Survey

British Journal of Anaesthesia??????????????????????????? ??????????? Obstetric Anesthesia Digest

British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology???? ??????????? Pediatrics

British Medical Journal????????????????????????????????????? ??????????? Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia

Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology

European Journal of Anaesthesiology

European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology

and Reproductive Biology


Key points follow many of the headings and subheadings and are listed after the references.

Assisted Reproductive Technologies

1.???????? Dunson DB, Baird DD, Colombo B: Increased infertility with age in men and women. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 51-6

2.???????? Gibson M: Outcomes with assisted reproductive technology: shooting first, asking questions later. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 1142-3

3.???????? Schieve LA, Ferre C, Peterson HB, Macaluso M, Reynolds MA, Wright VC: Perinatal outcome among singleton infants conceived through assisted reproductive technology in the United States. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 1144-53

4.???????? Schieve LA, Rasmussen SA, Buck GM, Schendel DE, Reynolds MA, Wright VC: Are children born after assisted reproductive technology at increased risk for adverse health outcomes? Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 1154-63

5.???????? Templeton A: Challenges of fertility treatment in the UK. BJOG 2004; 111: 1161-2

6.???????? Wadyka S: For women worried about fertility, egg bank is a new option. NY Times 2004:Sept 21

7.???????? Pinborg A, Loft A, Schmidt L, Greisen G, Rasmussen S, Andersen AN: Neurological sequelae in twins born after assisted conception: controlled national cohort study. BMJ 2004; 329: 311

8.???????? Donnez J, Dolmans MM, Demylle D, Jadoul P, Pirard C, Squifflet J, Martinez-Madrid B, van Langendonckt A: Livebirth after orthotopic transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue. Lancet 2004; 364: 1405-10

9.???????? Olivius C, Friden B, Borg G, Bergh C: Why do couples discontinue in vitro fertilization treatment? A cohort study. Fertil Steril 2004; 81: 258-61

10.??????? Healy D: Damaged babies from assisted reproductive technologies: focus on the BESST (birth emphasizing a successful singleton at term) outcome. Fertil Steril 2004; 81: 512-3, discussion 526

11.??????? Veeck LL, Bodine R, Clarke RN, Berrios R, Libraro J, Moschini RM, Zaninovic N, Rosenwaks Z: High pregnancy rates can be achieved after freezing and thawing human blastocysts. Fertil Steril 2004; 82: 1418-27

12.??????? McGovern PG, Llorens AJ, Skurnick JH, Weiss G, Goldsmith LT: Increased risk of preterm birth in singleton pregnancies resulting from in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer or gamete intrafallopian transfer: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril 2004; 82: 1514-20

13.??????? Niemitz EL, Feinberg AP: Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technology: a call for investigation. Am J Hum Genet 2004; 74: 599-609

14.??????? Orio F, Jr., Palomba S, Spinelli L, Cascella T, Tauchmanova L, Zullo F, Lombardi G, Colao A: The cardiovascular risk of young women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an observational, analytical, prospective case-control study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 3696-701

15.??????? Thurin A, Hausken J, Hillensjo T, Jablonowska B, Pinborg A, Strandell A, Bergh C: Elective single-embryo transfer versus double-embryo transfer in in vitro fertilization. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 2392-402

16.??????? Davis OK: Elective single-embryo transfer--has its time arrived? N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 2440-2

17.??????? Jaenisch R: Human cloning - the science and ethics of nuclear transplantation. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 2787-91

18.??????? Hampton T: Panel reviews health effects data for assisted reproductive technologies. JAMA 2004; 292: 2961-2

19.??????? Jain T, Missmer SA, Hornstein MD: Trends in embryo-transfer practice and in outcomes of the use of assisted reproductive technology in the United States. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 1639-45

20.??????? Helmerhorst FM, Perquin DA, Donker D, Keirse MJ: Perinatal outcome of singletons and twins after assisted conception: a systematic review of controlled studies. BMJ 2004; 328: 261

21.??????? Aitken RJ, Koopman P, Lewis SE: Seeds of concern. Nature 2004; 432: 48-52

Pregnant Patient, Fetus, and Newborn

Coexisting Disease


22.??????? Heffner LJ: Advanced maternal age--how old is too old? N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 1927-9

23.??????? Jacobsson B, Ladfors L, Milsom I: Advanced maternal age and adverse perinatal outcome. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 727-33

24.??????? Laufer N, Simon A, Samueloff A, Yaffe H, Milwidsky A, Gielchinsky Y: Successful spontaneous pregnancies in women older than 45 years. Fertil Steril 2004; 81: 1328-32

Allergy/Local Anesthetic Allergy

25.??????? Agostoni A, Aygoren-Pursun E, Binkley KE, Blanch A, Bork K, Bouillet L, Bucher C, Castaldo AJ: Hereditary and acquired angioedema: problems and progress: proceedings of the third C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency workshop and beyond. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004; 114: S51-131

26.??????? Acharya D: A primigravida allegedly allergic to local anaesthetics. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 124

27.??????? Langley RL: A review of venomous animal bites and stings in pregnant patients. Wilderness Environ Med 2004; 15: 207-15


28.??????? Osmanagaoglu MA, Osmanagaoglu S, Bozkaya H: Systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by HELLP syndrome. Anaesth Intensive Care 2004; 32: 569-74

Autonomic Dysfunction

29.??????? Burns R, Clark VA: Epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section in a patient with quadriplegia and autonomic hyperreflexia. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 120-3

30.??????? Ribes Pastor MP, Vanarase M: Peripartum anaesthetic management of a parturient with spinal cord injury and autonomic hyperreflexia. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 94


31.??????? Benlolo S, Lefoll C, Katchatouryan V, Payen D, Mebazaa A: Successful use of levosimendan in a patient with peripartum cardiomyopathy. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 822-4

32.??????? Kuczkowski KM: Chest pain and dysrhythmias in a healthy parturient: Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome vs cocaine-induced myocardial ischemia? Anaesth Intensive Care 2004; 32: 143-4

33.??????? Oron G, Hirsch R, Ben-Haroush A, Hod M, Gilboa Y, Davidi O, Bar J: Pregnancy outcome in women with heart disease undergoing induction of labour. BJOG 2004; 111: 669-75

34.??????? Ray P, Murphy GJ, Shutt LE: Recognition and management of maternal cardiac disease in pregnancy. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93: 428-39

35.??????? Robins K, Lyons G: Supraventricular tachycardia in pregnancy. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 140-3

36.??????? Klein LL, Galan HL: Cardiac disease in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2004; 31: 429-59

37.??????? Velickovic IA, Leicht CH: Continuous spinal anesthesia for cesarean section in a parturient with severe recurrent peripartum cardiomyopathy. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 40-3

38.??????? Walker E, Malins AF: Anaesthetic management of aortic coarctation in pregnancy. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 266-70

39.??????? Lovell AT: Anaesthetic implications of grown-up congenital heart disease. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93: 129-39

40.??????? Al-Refai A, Gunka V, Douglas J: Spinal anesthesia for Cesarean section in a parturient with long QT syndrome. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 993-6

41.??????? Pan PH, D'Angelo R: Anesthetic and analgesic management of mitral stenosis during pregnancy. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 610-5

42.??????? Orme RM, Grange CS, Ainsworth QP, Grebenik CR: General anaesthesia using remifentanil for caesarean section in parturients with critical aortic stenosis: a series of four cases. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 183-7

43.??????? Landau R, Giraud R, Morales M, Kern C, Trindade P: Sequential combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for cesarean section in a woman with a double-outlet right ventricle. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004; 48: 922-6

44.??????? Hill LL, De Wet CJ, Jacobsohn E, Leighton BL, Tymkew H: Peripartum substitution of inhaled for intravenous prostacyclin in a patient with primary pulmonary hypertension. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 1603-5

45.??????? Verhaert D, Van Acker R: Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy. Acta Cardiol 2004; 59: 331-9

46.??????? Veldtman GR, Connolly HM, Grogan M, Ammash NM, Warnes CA: Outcomes of pregnancy in women with tetralogy of Fallot. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004; 44: 174-80

47.??????? Romem A, Romem Y, Katz M, Battler A: Incidence and characteristics of maternal cardiac arrhythmias during labor. Am J Cardiol 2004; 93: 931-3

48.??????? Malhotra M, Sharma JB, Tripathii R, Arora P, Arora R: Maternal and fetal outcome in valvular heart disease. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2004; 84: 11-6

49.??????? Thorne SA: Pregnancy in heart disease. Heart 2004; 90: 450-6

50.??????? Fleisher LA: Preoperative cardiac evaluation. Anesthesiol Clin North America 2004; 22: 59-75

51.??????? Kiss G, Arvieux CC: Remarks on guidelines ERC 2000: cardiac arrest associated with pregnancy. Resuscitation 2004; 61: 367

52.??????? Lacassie HJ, Germain AM, Valdes G, Fernandez MS, Allamand F, Lopez H: Management of Eisenmenger syndrome in pregnancy with sildenafil and L-arginine. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 1118-20

53.??????? Bildirici I, Shumway JB: Intravenous and inhaled epoprostenol for primary pulmonary hypertension during pregnancy and delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 1102-5

54.??????? Mallampalli A, Powner DJ, Gardner MO: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and somatic support of the pregnant patient. Crit Care Clin 2004; 20: 747-61

55.??????? Frimerman A, Meisel SR: Images in clinical medicine. Peripartum dissection of the right coronary artery. N Engl J Med 2004; 351

Collagen /Connective Tissue

56.??????? Ioscovich A, Elstein Y, Halpern S, Vatashsky E, Grisaru-Granovsky S, Elstein D: Anesthesia for obstetric patients with Gaucher disease: survey and review. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 244-50

57.??????? Elstein Y, Eisenberg V, Granovsky-Grisaru S, Rabinowitz R, Samueloff A, Zimran A, Elstein D: Pregnancies in Gaucher disease: a 5-year study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 435-41


57.??????? Elstein Y, Eisenberg V, Granovsky-Grisaru S, Rabinowitz R, Samueloff A, Zimran A, Elstein D: Pregnancies in Gaucher disease: a 5-year study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 435-41

58.??????? Caliskan E, Kayikcioglu F, Ozturk N, Koc S, Haberal A: A population-based risk factor scoring will decrease unnecessary testing for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004; 83: 524-30

59.??????? Marchiano D, Elkousy M, Stevens E, Peipert J, Macones G: Diet-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus does not influence the success rates for vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 790-6

60.??????? Alexander EK, Marqusee E, Lawrence J, Jarolim P, Fischer GA, Larsen PR: Timing and magnitude of increases in levothyroxine requirements during pregnancy in women with hypothyroidism. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 241-9

61.??????? Anselmo J, Cao D, Karrison T, Weiss RE, Refetoff S: Fetal loss associated with excess thyroid hormone exposure. JAMA 2004; 292: 691-5

62.??????? Yogev Y, Ben-Haroush A, Chen R, Rosenn B, Hod M, Langer O: Undiagnosed asymptomatic hypoglycemia: diet, insulin, and glyburide for gestational diabetic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 88-93

63.??????? Amaya Garcia M, Acosta Feria M, Soto Moreno A, Dios Fuentes E, Navarro Gonzalez E, Quijada Thong D, Del Valle A, Acosta Delgado D, Astorga Jimenez R: Primary hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy. Gynecol Endocrinol 2004; 19: 111-4

64.??????? Dawson SI: Long-term risk of malignant neoplasm associated with gestational glucose intolerance. Cancer 2004; 100: 149-55

65.??????? Hampton T: Maternal diabetes and obesity may have lifelong impact on health of offspring. JAMA 2004; 292: 789-90


66.??????? Sleth JC, Lafforgue E, Servais R, Saizy C, Pluskwa F, Huet D, Benamran S, Verin C: [A case of hypertriglycideremia-induced pancreatitis in pregnancy: value of heparin]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2004; 23: 835-7

67.??????? Simmons DC, Tarnasky PR, Rivera-Alsina ME, Lopez JF, Edman CD: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in pregnancy without the use of radiation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1467-9


68.??????? Moldenhauer JS, O'Brien J M, Barton JR, Sibai B: Acute fatty liver of pregnancy associated with pancreatitis: a life-threatening complication. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 502-5

69.??????? Lu EJ, Curet MJ, El-Sayed YY, Kirkwood KS: Medical versus surgical management of biliary tract disease in pregnancy. Am J Surg 2004; 188: 755-9


70.??????? Kam PC, Thompson SA, Liew AC: Thrombocytopenia in the parturient. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 255-64

71.??????? Kjaer K, Comerford M, Gadalla F: General anesthesia for cesarean delivery in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and thrombocytopenia. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1471-2

72.??????? Kujovich JL: Thrombophilia and pregnancy complications. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 412-24

73.??????? Sarig G, Brenner B: Coagulation, inflammation, and pregnancy complications. Lancet 2004; 363: 96-7

74.??????? Paech MJ, Pavy TJ: Management of a parturient with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 188-91

75.??????? Bombeli T, Spahn DR: Updates in perioperative coagulation: physiology and management of thromboembolism and haemorrhage. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93: 275-87

76.??????? Martinelli P, Martinelli V, Agangi A, Maruotti GM, Paladini D, Ciancia R, Rotoli B: Interferon alfa treatment for pregnant women affected by essential thrombocythemia: case reports and a review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 2016-20

77.??????? Doyle NM, Monga M: Thromboembolic disease in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2004; 31: 319-44, vi

78.??????? Zeeman GG, Alexander JM, McIntire DD, Leveno KJ: The significance of antiphospholipid antibodies in pregnant women with chronic hypertension. Am J Perinatol 2004; 21: 275-9

79.??????? Sheiner E, Levy A, Yerushalmi R, Katz M: Beta-thalassemia minor during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 1273-7

80.??????? Wong AY, Chan RS, Irwin MG: Anesthetic management of Cesarean delivery in a patient with hypoplastic anemia and severe pre-eclampsia. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 923-7

81.??????? Moeller-Bertram T, Kuczkowski KM, Benumof JL: Uneventful epidural labor analgesia in a parturient with immune thrombocytopenic purpura and platelet count of 26,000/mm3 which was unknown preoperatively. J Clin Anesth 2004; 16: 51-3

82.??????? Firth PG, Head CA: Sickle cell disease and anesthesia. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 766-85

83.??????? Hepner DL, Tsen LC: Severe thrombocytopenia, type 2B von Willebrand disease and pregnancy. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 1465-7

84.??????? Donahue BS: Factor V Leiden and perioperative risk. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1623-34

85.??????? Frenkel E, Duksin C, Herman A, Sherman DJ: Congenital hypofibrinogenemia in pregnancy: report of two cases and review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2004; 59: 775-9

86.??????? Barbour LA, Oja JL, Schultz LK: A prospective trial that demonstrates that dalteparin requirements increase in pregnancy to maintain therapeutic levels of anticoagulation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 1024-9

87.??????? Horlocker TT, Wedel DJ, Benzon H, Brown DL, Enneking KF, Heit JA, Mulroy MF, Rosenquist RW, Rowlingson J, Tryba M, Yuan CS: Regional anesthesia in the anticoagulated patient: defining the risks. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 1-12

88.??????? Stephenson MD, Ballem PJ, Tsang P, Purkiss S, Ensworth S, Houlihan E, Ensom MH: Treatment of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) in pregnancy: a randomized pilot trial comparing low molecular weight heparin to unfractionated heparin. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2004; 26: 729-34

89.??????? Poddar RK, Coley S, Pavord S: Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome in a pregnant patient. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93: 740-2

90.??????? Romagnolo C, Burati S, Ciaffoni S, Fattori E, Franchi M, Zanon E, Girolami A: Severe factor X deficiency in pregnancy: case report and review of the literature. Haemophilia 2004; 10: 665-8

91.??????? Gates S, Brocklehurst P, Ayers S, Bowler U: Thromboprophylaxis and pregnancy: two randomized controlled pilot trials that used low-molecular-weight heparin. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 1296-303


92.??????? Gregg AR: Hypertension in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2004; 31: 223-41

93.??????? Vigil-De Gracia P, Montufar-Rueda C, Smith A: Pregnancy and severe chronic hypertension: maternal outcome. Hypertens Pregnancy 2004; 23: 285-93

94.??????? Moodley J: Maternal deaths associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: a population-based study. Hypertens Pregnancy 2004; 23: 247-56

95.??????? James PR, Nelson-Piercy C: Management of hypertension before, during, and after pregnancy. Heart 2004; 90: 1499-504


96.??????? Debiec H, Nauta J, Coulet F, van der Burg M, Guigonis V, Schurmans T, de Heer E, Soubrier F, Janssen F, Ronco P: Role of truncating mutations in MME gene in fetomaternal alloimmunisation and antenatal glomerulopathies. Lancet 2004; 364: 1252-9

97.??????? Whitington PF, Hibbard JU: High-dose immunoglobulin during pregnancy for recurrent neonatal haemochromatosis. Lancet 2004; 364: 1690-8

98.??????? O'Rourke J, Khawaja N, Loughrey J, McKenna P: Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis in a parturient for emergency caesarean section. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 275-8

99.??????? Rothenberg SP, da Costa MP, Sequeira JM, Cracco J, Roberts JL, Weedon J, Quadros EV: Autoantibodies against folate receptors in women with a pregnancy complicated by a neural-tube defect. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 134-42

100.????? Wald NJ: Folic acid and the prevention of neural-tube defects. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 101-3

101.????? Hackney DN, Knudtson EJ, Rossi KQ, Krugh D, O'Shaughnessy RW: Management of pregnancies complicated by anti-c isoimmunization. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 24-30

102.????? Cobeta-Garcia JC, Garcia-Enguita P, Pina-Latorre MA, Lerin-Sanchez FJ, Rodilla-Calvelo F: Ritodrine-induced leukocytoclastic vasculitis in pregnancy. Ann Pharmacother 2004; 38: 66-9


103.????? Evron S, Glezerman M, Harow E, Sadan O, Ezri T: Human immunodeficiency virus: anesthetic and obstetric considerations. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 503-11

104.????? Kumar A, Beniwal M, Kar P, Sharma JB, Murthy NS: Hepatitis E in pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2004; 85: 240-4

105.????? Lallemant M, Jourdain G, Le Coeur S, Mary JY, Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Koetsawang S, Kanshana S, McIntosh K, Thaineua V: Single-dose perinatal nevirapine plus standard zidovudine to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Thailand. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 217-28

106.????? Coovadia H: Antiretroviral agents--how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 289-92

107.????? Blair JM, Hanson DL, Jones JL, Dworkin MS: Trends in pregnancy rates among women with human immunodeficiency virus. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 663-8

108.????? Jamieson DJ, Cono J, Richards CL, Treadwell TA: The role of the obstetrician-gynecologist in emerging infectious diseases: monkeypox and pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 754-6

109.????? Interim guidelines for the evaluation of infants born to mothers infected with West Nile virus during pregnancy. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2004; 53: 154-7

110.????? Stephenson J: Researchers report findings on HIV drug resistance, new infections. JAMA 2004; 291: 1431-3

111.????? Yeni PG, Hammer SM, Hirsch MS, Saag MS, Schechter M, Carpenter CC, Fischl MA, Gatell JM, Gazzard BG, Jacobsen DM, Katzenstein DA, Montaner JS, Richman DD, Schooley RT, Thompson MA, Vella S, Volberding PA: Treatment for adult HIV infection: 2004 recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA Panel. JAMA 2004; 292: 251-65

112.????? Kottilil S, Polis MA, Kovacs JA: HIV Infection, hepatitis C infection, and HAART: hard clinical choices. JAMA 2004; 292: 243-50

113.????? ACOG committee opinion number 304, November 2004. Prenatal and perinatal human immunodeficiency virus testing: expanded recommendations. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 1119-24

114.????? Jackson SH, Cheung EC: Hepatitis B and hepatitis C: occupational considerations for the anesthesiologist. Anesthesiol Clin North America 2004; 22: 357-77

115.????? Hughes SC: HIV and anesthesia. Anesthesiol Clin North America 2004; 22: 379-404

116.????? Datta S, Spencer J: Cutaneous tuberculosis in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 24: 455

117.????? Goldberg D, Anderson E: Hepatitis C: who is at risk and how do we identify them? J Viral Hepat 2004; 11 Suppl 1: 12-8

118.????? Wax JR, Pinette MG, Blackstone J, Cartin A: Brain abscess complicating pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2004; 59: 207-13

119.????? Pomerantz RJ, Nunnari G: HIV and GB virus C--can two viruses be better than one? N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 963-5

120.????? Plunkett BA, Grobman WA: Elective cesarean delivery to prevent perinatal transmission of hepatitis C virus: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 998-1003


121.????? Picolos MK, Sims CR, Mastrobattista JM, Carroll MA, Lavis VR: Milk-alkali syndrome in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 1201-4

122.????? Steegers-Theunissen RP, Van Iersel CA, Peer PG, Nelen WL, Steegers EA: Hyperhomocysteinemia, pregnancy complications, and the timing of investigation. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 336-43


123.????? Wang SM, Dezinno P, Maranets I, Berman MR, Caldwell-Andrews AA, Kain ZN: Low back pain during pregnancy: prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 65-70

124.????? Ostensen M, Fuhrer L, Mathieu R, Seitz M, Villiger PM: A prospective study of pregnant patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis using validated clinical instruments. Ann Rheum Dis 2004; 63: 1212-7

125.????? Debeer P, Devlieger R, Brys P, Spitz B: Scapular winging after vaginal delivery. BJOG 2004; 111: 758-9

126.????? Timsit MA: [Pregnancy, low-back pain and pelvic girdle pain]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil 2004; 32: 420-6


127.????? Dugas G, Fuller J, Singh S, Watson J: Pheochromocytoma and pregnancy: a case report and review of anesthetic management. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 134-8

128.????? Buvanendran A, Mohajer P, Pombar X, Tuman KJ: Perioperative management with epidural anesthesia for a parturient with superior vena caval obstruction. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1160-3

129.????? Jacobs IA, Chang CK, Salti GI: Coexistence of pregnancy and cancer. Am Surg 2004; 70: 1025-9

130.????? Maxwell C, Barzilay B, Shah V, Wunder JS, Bell R, Farine D: Maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by bone and soft-tissue tumors. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 344-8

131.????? Rao GD, Chian RC, Son WS, Gilbert L, Tan SL: Fertility preservation in women undergoing cancer treatment. Lancet 2004; 363: 1829-30

132.????? Paltiel O, Friedlander Y, Tiram E, Barchana M, Xue X, Harlap S: Cancer after pre-eclampsia: follow up of the Jerusalem perinatal study cohort. BMJ 2004; 328: 919

133.????? Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Knapp RC, Caputo TA, Barber HR: A clinically comprehensive ethical framework for offering and recommending cancer treatment before and during pregnancy. Cancer 2004; 100: 215-22


134.????? Habib AS, Helsley SE, Millar S, Deballi P, 3rd, Muir HA: Anesthesia for cesarean section in a patient with spinal muscular atrophy. J Clin Anesth 2004; 16: 217-9

135.????? Masski G, Housni B, Ibahiouin K, Miguil M: Spontaneous cervical epidural haematoma during pregnancy. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 103-6

136.????? Agusti M, Adalia R, Fernandez C, Gomar C: Anaesthesia for caesarean section in a patient with syringomyelia and Arnold-Chiari type I malformation. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 114-6

137.????? Schmitt HJ, Muenster T, Schmidt J: Central neural blockade in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 1049-50

138.????? Merrison AF, Lhatoo SD: Horner's syndrome postpartum. BJOG 2004; 111: 86-8

139.????? Coppage KH, Hinton AC, Moldenhauer J, Kovilam O, Barton JR, Sibai BM: Maternal and perinatal outcome in women with a history of stroke. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1331-4

140.????? Adab N, Tudur SC, Vinten J, Williamson P, Winterbottom J: Common antiepileptic drugs in pregnancy in women with epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004: CD004848

141.????? Choulika S, Grabowski E, Holmes LB: Is antenatal vitamin K prophylaxis needed for pregnant women taking anticonvulsants? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 882-3

142.????? Shehata HA, Okosun H: Neurological disorders in pregnancy. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2004; 16: 117-22

143.????? Ciafaloni E, Massey JM: The management of myasthenia gravis in pregnancy. Semin Neurol 2004; 24: 95-100

144.????? Szkup P, Stoneham G: Case report: spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma during pregnancy: case report and review of the literature. Br J Radiol 2004; 77: 881-4

145.????? Kuczkowski KM: Planning for labor (and labor analgesia) in a parturient with spinal cord injury: a need for multidisciplinary approach. Spine J 2004; 4: 370

146.????? Koide R, Sakamoto M, Tanaka K, Hayashi H: Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome during pregnancy. J Neuroophthalmol 2004; 24: 273

147.????? Wilkinson DA, Popham PA: Seizures and the pituitary gland during pregnancy. Anaesth Intensive Care 2004; 32: 835-7


148.????? Cedergren MI: Maternal morbid obesity and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 219-24

149.????? Vahratian A, Zhang J, Troendle JF, Savitz DA, Siega-Riz AM: Maternal prepregnancy overweight and obesity and the pattern of labor progression in term nulliparous women. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 943-51

150.????? Coe AJ, Saleh T, Samuel T, Edwards R: The management of patients with morbid obesity in the anaesthetic assessment clinic. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 570-3

151.????? Emett A, Gowrie-Mohan S: Standard dose hyperbaric bupivacaine is safe and effective for CSE in morbidly obese patients. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 298-9

152.????? Nuthalapaty FS, Rouse DJ, Owen J: The association of maternal weight with cesarean risk, labor duration, and cervical dilation rate during labor induction. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 452-6

153.????? Vastag B: Obesity Is Now on Everyone's Plate. JAMA 2004; 291: 1186-8

154.????? Nuthalapaty FS, Rouse DJ: The impact of obesity on obstetrical practice and outcome. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2004; 47: 898-913; discussion 980-1

155.????? Kuczkowski KM: Labor analgesia for the morbidly obese parturient: an old problem-new solution. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2004

156.????? In the delivery room, a woman's weight may impact clinical choices. Hosp Health Netw 2004; 78: 60


157.????? Brown MD, Brookfield KF: Lumbar disc excision and cesarean delivery during the same anesthesia. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2004; 86-A: 2030-2

158.????? van Zwienen CM, van den Bosch EW, Snijders CJ, van Vugt AB: Triple pelvic ring fixation in patients with severe pregnancy-related low back and pelvic pain. Spine 2004; 29: 478-84

159.????? Weatherby SJ, Woolner P, Clarke CE: Pregnancy in stiff-limb syndrome. Mov Disord 2004; 19: 852-4

160.????? Rosemeier F, Shumway JB, Schallen EH, Bottros L, Leighton BL: Successful pregnancy and cesarean delivery 22 years after separation in an ischiopagus tetrapus conjoined twin. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 1601-3


161.????? Olsson C, Nilsson-Wikmar L: Health-related quality of life and physical ability among pregnant women with and without back pain in late pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004; 83: 351-7

162.????? Kvorning N, Holmberg C, Grennert L, Aberg A, Akeson J: Acupuncture relieves pelvic and low-back pain in late pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004; 83: 246-50


163.????? Brockington I: Postpartum psychiatric disorders. Lancet 2004; 363: 303-10

164.????? Bennett HA, Einarson A, Taddio A, Koren G, Einarson TR: Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: systematic review. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 698-709

165.????? Loveland Cook CA, Flick LH, Homan SM, Campbell C, McSweeney M, Gallagher ME: Posttraumatic stress disorder in pregnancy: prevalence, risk factors, and treatment. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 710-7

166.????? Andersson L, Sundstrom-Poromaa I, Wulff M, Astrom M, Bixo M: Implications of antenatal depression and anxiety for obstetric outcome. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 467-76

167.????? Webb RT, Howard L, Abel KM: Antipsychotic drugs for non-affective psychosis during pregnancy and postpartum. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004: CD004411

168.????? Crow SJ, Keel PK, Thuras P, Mitchell JE: Bulimia symptoms and other risk behaviors during pregnancy in women with bulimia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord 2004; 36: 220-3

169.????? Zeskind PS, Stephens LE: Maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use during pregnancy and newborn neurobehavior. Pediatrics 2004; 113: 368-75



170.????? Dombrowski MP, Schatz M, Wise R, Momirova V, Landon M, Mabie W, Newman RB, McNellis D, Hauth JC, Lindheimer M, Caritis SN, Leveno KJ, Meis P, Miodovnik M, Wapner RJ, Paul RH, Varner MW, O'Sullivan MJ, Thurnau GR, Conway DL: Asthma during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 5-12

171.????? Kwon HL, Belanger K, Bracken MB: Effect of pregnancy and stage of pregnancy on asthma severity: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1201-10

172.????? Miguil M, Chekairi A: Pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax associated with labour. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 117-9

173.????? Towers CV, Briggs GG, Rojas JA: The use of prostaglandin E2 in pregnant patients with asthma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1777-80; discussion 1780

174.????? Cohen R, Talwar A, Efferen LS: Exacerbation of underlying pulmonary disease in pregnancy. Crit Care Clin 2004; 20: 713-30

175.????? Bandi VD, Munnur U, Matthay MA: Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in pregnancy. Crit Care Clin 2004; 20: 577-607

176.????? Gardner MO, Doyle NM: Asthma in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2004; 31: 385-413

177.????? Sicuranza GB, Figueroa R: Pregnancy in a woman with unilateral lung agenesis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2004; 15: 418-20


178.????? Eroglu D, Lembet A, Ozdemir FN, Ergin T, Kazanci F, Kuscu E, Haberal M: Pregnancy during hemodialysis: perinatal outcome in our cases. Transplant Proc 2004; 36: 53-5

179.????? Fischer MJ, Lehnerz SD, Hebert JR, Parikh CR: Kidney disease is an independent risk factor for adverse fetal and maternal outcomes in pregnancy. Am J Kidney Dis 2004; 43: 415-23

Substance Abuse

180.????? Dennedy MC, Friel AM, Houlihan DD, Broderick VM, Smith T, Morrison JJ: Cannabinoids and the human uterus during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 2-9; discussion 3A

181.????? Kuczkowski KM: The cocaine abusing parturient: a review of anesthetic considerations. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 145-54

182.????? Singer LT, Minnes S, Short E, Arendt R, Farkas K, Lewis B, Klein N, Russ S, Min MO, Kirchner HL: Cognitive outcomes of preschool children with prenatal cocaine exposure. JAMA 2004; 291: 2448-56

183.????? Kuczkowski KM: Liquid ecstasy during pregnancy. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 926

184.????? Kuczkowski KM: Marijuana in pregnancy. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2004; 33: 336-9

185.????? Kuczkowski KM, Le K: Substance use and misuse in pregnancy: peripartum anesthetic management of a parturient with recent methanol toluene and isopropanol intake. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 2004; 55: 53-5

186.????? Thadani PV, Strauss JF, 3rd, Dey SK, Anderson VM, Audus KL, Coats KS, Cross JC, Erlebacher A, Ganapathy V, Linzer DI, Miller RK, Novak DA, Rapaka RS, Sadovsky Y, Salafia CM, Soares M, Unadkat J: National Institute on Drug Abuse Conference report on placental proteins, drug transport, and fetal development. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 1858-62

187.????? ACOG Committee Opinion. Number 294, May 2004. At-risk drinking and illicit drug use: ethical issues in obstetric and gynecologic practice. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 1021-31

188.????? Cassidy B, Cyna AM: Challenges that opioid-dependent women present to the obstetric anaesthetist. Anaesth Intensive Care 2004; 32: 494-501

189.????? Burgermeister J: French wine makers face legal action over birth defects. BMJ 2004; 329: 368

190.????? Shankaran S, Das A, Bauer CR, Bada HS, Lester B, Wright LL, Smeriglio V: Association between patterns of maternal substance use and infant birth weight, length, and head circumference. Pediatrics 2004; 114: 226-34

191.????? Garcia-Algar O, Puig C, Vall O, Pacifici R, Pichini S: Effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on newborn neurobehavior: neonatal nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Pediatrics 2004; 113: 623-4; author reply 623-4

192.????? Smoking during pregnancy--United States, 1990-2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2004; 53: 911-5


193.????? Sivaraman P: Management of pregnancy in transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 2004; 36: 1999-2000

194.????? Cardonick E, Moritz M, Armenti V: Pregnancy in patients with organ transplantation: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2004; 59: 214-22

195.????? Sayegh MH, Carpenter CB: Transplantation 50 years later--progress, challenges, and promises. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 2761-6


196.????? Nelson TW, Kuczkowski KM: Trauma in pregnancy: anesthetic management of a parturient with hypotensive shock and trauma to the gravid uterus. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004; 48: 662

197.????? El-Kady D, Gilbert WM, Anderson J, Danielsen B, Towner D, Smith LH: Trauma during pregnancy: an analysis of maternal and fetal outcomes in a large population. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1661-8

198.????? Warner MW, Salfinger SG, Rao S, Magann EF, Hall JC: Management of trauma during pregnancy. ANZ J Surg 2004; 74: 125-8

199.????? Kuczkowski KM: Trauma in pregnancy. Perioperative anesthetic considerations for the head-injured pregnant trauma victim. Anaesthesist 2004; 53: 180-1

200.????? McGwin G, Jr., Russell SR, Rux RL, Leath CA, Valent F, Rue LW: Knowledge, beliefs, and practices concerning seat belt use during pregnancy. J Trauma 2004; 56: 670-5


201.????? O'Rourke N, Wollman L, Camann W: Bilateral spontaneous vertebral artery dissection: management during labor and vaginal delivery. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 44-6

202.????? Severi FM, Ignacchiti E, Setacci F, Palasciano G, Setacci C, Petraglia F: Pregnancy and delivery after right common carotid artery endarterectomy. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 1140-2

203.????? Weissmann-Brenner A, Schoen R, Divon MY: Aortic dissection in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 1110-3

204.????? Aziz U, Kulkarni A, Lazic D, Cullimore JE: Spontaneous rupture of the uterine vessels in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 1089-91

Complementary and Alternative Medicine

205.????? Raduege KM, Kleshinski JF, Ryckman JV, Tetzlaff JE: Anesthetic considerations of the herbal, kava. J Clin Anesth 2004; 16: 305-11

206.????? Finkel RS, Zarlengo KM: Blue cohosh and perinatal stroke. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 302-3

207.????? Nordeng H, Havnen GC: Use of herbal drugs in pregnancy: a survey among 400 Norwegian women. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2004; 13: 371-80


Fetal Monitoring

208.????? ACOG Committee Opinion #303: Inappropriate use of the terms fetal distress and birth asphyxia. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 903

209.????? Kuhnert M, Schmidt S: Intrapartum management of nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns: a randomized controlled trial of fetal pulse oximetry. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 1989-95

210.????? Sameshima H, Ikenoue T, Ikeda T, Kamitomo M, Ibara S: Unselected low-risk pregnancies and the effect of continuous intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring on umbilical blood gases and cerebral palsy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 118-23

211.????? Porreco RP, Boehm FH, Dildy GA, Miller HS, Wickstrom EA, Garite TJ, Swedlow D: Dystocia in nulliparous patients monitored with fetal pulse oximetry. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 113-7

212.????? East CE, Chan FY, Colditz PB: Fetal pulse oximetry for fetal assessment in labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004: CD004075

213.????? Ross MG, Devoe LD, Rosen KG: ST-segment analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram improves fetal heart rate tracing interpretation and clinical decision making. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2004; 15: 181-5

214.????? Oudijk MA, Kwee A, Visser GH, Blad S, Meijboom EJ, Rosen KG: The effects of intrapartum hypoxia on the fetal QT interval. BJOG 2004; 111: 656-60

215.????? Caridi BJ, Bolnick JM, Fletcher BG, Rayburn WF: Effect of halogen light stimulation on nonstress testing. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1470-2

216.????? Waterman EJ, Magee LA, Lim KI, Skoll A, Rurak D, von Dadelszen P: Do commonly used oral antihypertensives alter fetal or neonatal heart rate characteristics? A systematic review. Hypertens Pregnancy 2004; 23: 155-69

Fetal Surgery

217.????? Bruner JP, Tulipan N, Reed G, Davis GH, Bennett K, Luker KS, Dabrowiak ME: Intrauterine repair of spina bifida: preoperative predictors of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1305-12

218.????? Rychik J, Tian Z, Cohen MS, Ewing SG, Cohen D, Howell LJ, Wilson RD, Johnson MP, Hedrick HL, Flake AW, Crombleholme TM, Adzick NS: Acute cardiovascular effects of fetal surgery in the human. Circulation 2004; 110: 1549-56

219.????? Harrison MR: The University of California at San Francisco Fetal Treatment Center: a personal perspective. Fetal Diagn Ther 2004; 19: 513-24

220.????? Coke GA, Baschat AA, Mighty HE, Malinow AM: Maternal cardiac arrest associated with attempted fetal injection of potassium chloride. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 287-90

221.????? Dahlgren G, Tornberg DC, Pregner K, Irestedt L: Four cases of the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure: anesthetic implications. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 178-82

222.????? Senat MV, Deprest J, Boulvain M, Paupe A, Winer N, Ville Y: Endoscopic laser surgery versus serial amnioreduction for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 136-44

223.????? Davies S, Mordani K: Anesthetic management of laparoscopic surgery for twin to twin transfusion syndrome. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 945-6

224.????? Clark KD, Viscomi CM, Lowell J, Chien EK: Nitroglycerin for relaxation to establish a fetal airway (EXIT procedure). Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 1113-5

225.????? Missant C, Van Schoubroeck D, Deprest J, Devlieger R, Teunkens A, Van de Velde M: Remifentanil for foetal immobilisation and maternal sedation during endoscopic treatment of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome : a preliminary dose-finding study. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 2004; 55: 239-44

Maternal Fever and Neonatal Sepsis Evaluation

226.????? Banerjee S, Cashman P, Yentis SM, Steer PJ: Maternal temperature monitoring during labor: concordance and variability among monitoring sites. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 287-93

227.????? Goetzl L, Rivers J, Evans T, Citron DR, Richardson BE, Lieberman E, Suresh MS: Prophylactic acetaminophen does not prevent epidural fever in nulliparous women: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Perinatol 2004; 24: 471-5



228.????? Fujimori K, Ishida T, Yamada J, Sato A: The effect of magnesium sulfate on the behavioral activities of fetal goats. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 137-42

Breast Feeding

229.????? Vogel D, Burkhardt T, Rentsch K, Schweer H, Watzer B, Zimmermann R, Von Mandach U: Misoprostol versus methylergometrine: pharmacokinetics in human milk. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 2168-73

230.????? Odent M: Nursing the caesarean born. Midwifery Today Int Midwife 2004: 40-1

Cerebral Palsy

231.????? Neonatal encephalopathy and cerebral palsy: executive summary. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 780-1

232.????? De Vries LS, Van Haastert IL, Rademaker KJ, Koopman C, Groenendaal F: Ultrasound abnormalities preceding cerebral palsy in high-risk preterm infants. J Pediatr 2004; 144: 815-20

233.????? Mirmiran M, Barnes PD, Keller K, Constantinou JC, Fleisher BE, Hintz SR, Ariagno RL: Neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging before discharge is better than serial cranial ultrasound in predicting cerebral palsy in very low birth weight preterm infants. Pediatrics 2004; 114: 992-8

234.????? Golan H, Kashtuzki I, Hallak M, Sorokin Y, Huleihel M: Maternal hypoxia during pregnancy induces fetal neurodevelopmental brain damage: partial protection by magnesium sulfate. J Neurosci Res 2004; 78: 430-41

235.????? Goldstein M: The treatment of cerebral palsy: What we know, what we don't know. J Pediatr 2004; 145: S42-6

236.????? Koman LA, Smith BP, Shilt JS: Cerebral palsy. Lancet 2004; 363: 1619-31

237.????? Gibbs RS, Rosenberg AR, Warren CJ, Galan HL, Rumack CM: Suggestions for practice to accompany neonatal encephalopathy and cerebral palsy. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 778-9

238.????? Ashwal S, Russman BS, Blasco PA, Miller G, Sandler A, Shevell M, Stevenson R: Practice parameter: diagnostic assessment of the child with cerebral palsy: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Neurology 2004; 62: 851-63

239.????? Kaukola T, Satyaraj E, Patel DD, Tchernev VT, Grimwade BG, Kingsmore SF, Koskela P, Tammela O, Vainionpaa L, Pihko H, Aarimaa T, Hallman M: Cerebral palsy is characterized by protein mediators in cord serum. Ann Neurol 2004; 55: 186-94

240.????? Dammann O, Leviton A: Biomarker epidemiology of cerebral palsy. Ann Neurol 2004; 55: 158-61

Low Birth Weight/Preterm Delivery

241.????? Hamrick SE, Miller SP, Leonard C, Glidden DV, Goldstein R, Ramaswamy V, Piecuch R, Ferriero DM: Trends in severe brain injury and neurodevelopmental outcome in premature newborn infants: the role of cystic periventricular leukomalacia. J Pediatr 2004; 145: 593-9

242.????? Lucey JF, Rowan CA, Shiono P, Wilkinson AR, Kilpatrick S, Payne NR, Horbar J, Carpenter J, Rogowski J, Soll RF: Fetal infants: the fate of 4172 infants with birth weights of 401 to 500 grams--the Vermont Oxford Network experience (1996-2000). Pediatrics 2004; 113: 1559-66

243.????? Stoll BJ, Hansen N, Fanaroff AA, Wright LL, Carlo WA, Ehrenkranz RA, Lemons JA, Donovan EF, Stark AR, Tyson JE, Oh W, Bauer CR, Korones SB, Shankaran S, Laptook AR, Stevenson DK, Papile LA, Poole WK: To tap or not to tap: high likelihood of meningitis without sepsis among very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 2004; 113: 1181-6

244.????? Anand KJ, Hall RW, Desai N, Shephard B, Bergqvist LL, Young TE, Boyle EM, Carbajal R, Bhutani VK, Moore MB, Kronsberg SS, Barton BA: Effects of morphine analgesia in ventilated preterm neonates: primary outcomes from the NEOPAIN randomised trial. Lancet 2004; 363: 1673-82

245.????? Rogowski JA, Horbar JD, Staiger DO, Kenny M, Carpenter J, Geppert J: Indirect vs direct hospital quality indicators for very low-birth-weight infants. JAMA 2004; 291: 202-9

246.????? Bar-Lev MR, Maayan-Metzger A, Matok I, Heyman Z, Sivan E, Kuint J: Short-term outcomes in low birth weight infants following antenatal exposure to betamethasone versus dexamethasone. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 484-8

247.????? Vergani P, Locatelli A, Doria V, Assi F, Paterlini G, Pezzullo JC, Ghidini A: Intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia in preterm infants. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 225-31

248.????? Hashimoto LN, Lindsell CJ, Brewer DE, Eichel MM, Donovan EF: Contributions of infertility treatment to very-low-birth-weight multiple birth infants receiving neonatal intensive care. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 401-6

249.????? Vohr BR, Wright LL, Dusick AM, Perritt R, Poole WK, Tyson JE, Steichen JJ, Bauer CR, Wilson-Costello DE, Mayes LC: Center differences and outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 2004; 113: 781-9

250.????? Kostelanetz AS, Dhanireddy R: Survival of the very-low-birth-weight infants after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in neonatal intensive care unit. J Perinatol 2004; 24: 279-83

251.????? Colvin M, McGuire W, Fowlie PW: Neurodevelopmental outcomes after preterm birth. BMJ 2004; 329: 1390-3

252.????? Msall ME: Developmental vulnerability and resilience in extremely preterm infants. JAMA 2004; 292: 2399-401

253.????? Stoll BJ, Hansen NI, Adams-Chapman I, Fanaroff AA, Hintz SR, Vohr B, Higgins RD: Neurodevelopmental and growth impairment among extremely low-birth-weight infants with neonatal infection. JAMA 2004; 292: 2357-65

254.????? Kim TI, Sohn J, Pi SY, Yoon YH: Postnatal risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2004; 18: 130-4

Meconium Aspiration

255.????? Vain NE, Szyld EG, Prudent LM, Wiswell TE, Aguilar AM, Vivas NI: Oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal suctioning of meconium-stained neonates before delivery of their shoulders: multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004; 364: 597-602

256.????? Zecca E, Costa S, Lauriola V, Vento G, Papacci P, Romagnoli C: Bile acid pneumonia: a "new" form of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome? Pediatrics 2004; 114: 269-72

257.????? Gelfand SL, Fanaroff JM, Walsh MC: Meconium stained fluid: approach to the mother and the baby. Pediatr Clin North Am 2004; 51: 655-67

258.????? Fuhrman BP: Surface properties and the meconium aspiration syndrome. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2004; 5: 200-1


259.????? Miller SP, Latal B, Clark H, Barnwell A, Glidden D, Barkovich AJ, Ferriero DM, Partridge JC: Clinical signs predict 30-month neurodevelopmental outcome after neonatal encephalopathy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 93-9

260.????? Boldt T, Andersson S, Eronen M: Etiology and outcome of fetuses with functional heart disease. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004; 83: 531-5

261.????? Evans MI, Llurba E, Landsberger EJ, JE OB, Harrison HH: Impact of folic acid fortification in the United States: markedly diminished high maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein values. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 474-9

262.????? Wang LW, Huang CC, Yeh TF: Major brain lesions detected on sonographic screening of apparently normal term neonates. Neuroradiology 2004; 46: 368-73

263.????? Ozduman K, Pober BR, Barnes P, Copel JA, Ogle EA, Duncan CC, Ment LR: Fetal stroke. Pediatr Neurol 2004; 30: 151-62

264.????? Pleacher MD, Vohr BR, Katz KH, Ment LR, Allan WC: An evidence-based approach to predicting low IQ in very preterm infants from the neurological examination: outcome data from the Indomethacin Intraventricular Hemorrhage Prevention Trial. Pediatrics 2004; 113: 416-9

265.????? Thornton JG, Hornbuckle J, Vail A, Spiegelhalter DJ, Levene M: Infant wellbeing at 2 years of age in the Growth Restriction Intervention Trial (GRIT): multicentred randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004; 364: 513-20

266.????? Hampton T: Fetal environment may have profound long-term consequences for health. JAMA 2004; 292: 1285-6

267.????? Gibbs RS, Schrag S, Schuchat A: Perinatal infections due to group B streptococci. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 1062-76

268.????? American Academy of Pediatrics: Management of hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant 35 or more weeks of gestation. Pediatrics 2004; 114: 297-316


269.????? Nelson R: US infant mortality shows first rise in 40 years. Lancet 2004; 363: 626

270.????? Florio P, Michetti F, Bruschettini M, Lituania M, Bruschettini P, Severi FM, Petraglia F, Gazzolo D: Amniotic fluid S100B protein in mid-gestation and intrauterine fetal death. Lancet 2004; 364: 270-2

271.????? Smith GC, Wood AM, Pell JP, White IR, Crossley JA, Dobbie R: Second-trimester maternal serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein and the subsequent risk of sudden infant death syndrome. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 978-86

272.????? Ferriero DM: Neonatal brain injury. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 1985-95

273.????? Frias AE, Jr., Luikenaar RA, Sullivan AE, Lee RM, Porter TF, Branch DW, Silver RM: Poor obstetric outcome in subsequent pregnancies in women with prior fetal death. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 521-6

274.????? Singh J, Lantos J, Meadow W: End-of-life after birth: death and dying in a neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatrics 2004; 114: 1620-6

275.????? Smith GC, Crossley JA, Aitken DA, Pell JP, Cameron AD, Connor JM, Dobbie R: First-trimester placentation and the risk of antepartum stillbirth. JAMA 2004; 292: 2249-54

Respiratory Distress

276.????? Yeh TF, Lin YJ, Lin HC, Huang CC, Hsieh WS, Lin CH, Tsai CH: Outcomes at school age after postnatal dexamethasone therapy for lung disease of prematurity. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 1304-13

277.????? Shulenin S, Nogee LM, Annilo T, Wert SE, Whitsett JA, Dean M: ABCA3 gene mutations in newborns with fatal surfactant deficiency. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 1296-303

278.????? Sehdev HM, Abbasi S, Robertson P, Fisher L, Marchiano DA, Gerdes JS, Ludmir J: The effects of the time interval from antenatal corticosteroid exposure to delivery on neonatal outcome of very low birth weight infants. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 1409-13

279.????? Stevens TP, Blennow M, Soll RF: Early surfactant administration with brief ventilation vs selective surfactant and continued mechanical ventilation for preterm infants with or at risk for respiratory distress syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004: CD003063

280.????? Dani C, Bertini G, Pezzati M, Cecchi A, Caviglioli C, Rubaltelli FF: Early extubation and nasal continuous positive airway pressure after surfactant treatment for respiratory distress syndrome among preterm infants <30 weeks' gestation. Pediatrics 2004; 113: 560-3

281.????? Horbar JD, Carpenter JH, Buzas J, Soll RF, Suresh G, Bracken MB, Leviton LC, Plsek PE, Sinclair JC: Timing of initial surfactant treatment for infants 23 to 29 weeks' gestation: is routine practice evidence based? Pediatrics 2004; 113: 1593-602

282.????? Davies MW, Sargent PH: Partial liquid ventilation for the prevention of mortality and morbidity in paediatric acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004: CD003845

283.????? Brimacombe J, Gandini D, Keller C: The laryngeal mask airway for administration of surfactant in two neonates with respiratory distress syndrome. Paediatr Anaesth 2004; 14: 188-90

284.????? Cook LN: Update on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Paediatr Respir Rev 2004; 5 Suppl A: S329-37

285.????? Konduri GG, Solimano A, Sokol GM, Singer J, Ehrenkranz RA, Singhal N, Wright LL, Van Meurs K, Stork E, Kirpalani H, Peliowski A: A randomized trial of early versus standard inhaled nitric oxide therapy in term and near-term newborn infants with hypoxic respiratory failure. Pediatrics 2004; 113: 559-64


287.????? Maisels MJ, Ostrea EM, Jr., Touch S, Clune SE, Cepeda E, Kring E, Gracey K, Jackson C, Talbot D, Huang R: Evaluation of a new transcutaneous bilirubinometer. Pediatrics 2004; 113: 1628-35

288.????? Peerzada JM, Richardson DK, Burns JP: Delivery room decision-making at the threshold of viability. J Pediatr 2004; 145: 492-8

289.????? Lane B, Finer N, Rich W: Duration of intubation attempts during neonatal resuscitation. J Pediatr 2004; 145: 67-70

290.????? Raupp P, Reynolds G: Intubation and suction for meconium-stained amniotic fluid according to the neonatal resuscitation program: a tricky issue. Pediatrics 2004; 113: 182

291.????? O'Donnell C, Davis P, Morley C: Positive end-expiratory pressure for resuscitation of newborn infants at birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004: CD004341

292.????? Trevisanuto D, Micaglio M, Pitton M, Magarotto M, Piva D, Zanardo V: Laryngeal mask airway: is the management of neonates requiring positive pressure ventilation at birth changing? Resuscitation 2004; 62: 151-7

293.????? Tan A, Schulze A, O'Donnell CP, Davis PG: Air versus oxygen for resuscitation of infants at birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004: CD002273

294.????? Anand KJ, Runeson B, Jacobson B: Gastric suction at birth associated with long-term risk for functional intestinal disorders in later life. J Pediatr 2004; 144: 449-54

295.????? Vohra S, Roberts RS, Zhang B, Janes M, Schmidt B: Heat Loss Prevention (HeLP) in the delivery room: A randomized controlled trial of polyethylene occlusive skin wrapping in very preterm infants. J Pediatr 2004; 145: 750-3

296.????? American Academy of Pediatrics: Levels of Neonatal Care. Pediatrics 2004; 114: 1341-47

297.????? American Academy of Pediatrics: Are complete blood cell counts useful in the evaluation of asymptomatic neonates exposed to suspected chorioamnionitis. Pediatrics 2004; 113: 1173-80

Umbilical Cord Issues

298.????? Rabe H, Reynolds G, Diaz-Rossello J: Early versus delayed umbilical cord clamping in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004: CD003248

Non-Obstetric Surgery During Pregnancy

299.????? Iyilikci L, Erbayraktar S, Tural AN, Celik M, Sannav S: Anesthetic management of lumbar discectomy in a pregnant patient. J Anesth 2004; 18: 45-7

300.????? Uemura K, McClaine RJ, de la Fuente SG, Manson RJ, Campbell KA, McClaine DJ, White WD, Stamler JS, Eubanks WS, Reynolds JD: Maternal insufflation during the second trimester equivalent produces hypercapnia, acidosis, and prolonged hypoxia in fetal sheep. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 1332-8

301.????? Sainsbury DC, Dorkin TJ, MacPhail S, Soomro NA: Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy in first-trimester pregnancy. Urology 2004; 64: 1231

302.????? Pardi G, Ferrari MM, Iorio F, Acocella F, Boero V, Berlanda N, Monaco A, Reato C, Santoro F, Cetin I: The effect of maternal hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass on fetal lamb temperature, hemodynamics, oxygenation, and acid-base balance. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2004; 127: 1728-34

303.????? Kuczkowski KM: Nonobstetric surgery during pregnancy: what are the risks of anesthesia? Obstet Gynecol Surv 2004; 59: 52-6

304.????? Balki M, Manninen PH: Craniotomy for suprasellar meningioma in a 28-week pregnant woman without fetal heart rate monitoring. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 573-6

305.????? Macarthur A: Craniotomy for suprasellar meningioma during pregnancy: role of fetal monitoring. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 535-8

306.????? Skull AJ, Slater GH, Duncombe JE, Fielding GA: Laparoscopic adjustable banding in pregnancy: safety, patient tolerance and effect on obesity-related pregnancy outcomes. Obes Surg 2004; 14: 230-5

307.????? Anand KJ, Soriano SG: Anesthetic agents and the immature brain: are these toxic or therapeutic? Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 527-30

308.????? Martin F, Viviand X, Desbriere R, Boubli L, Martin C: [Do we have to monitor foetal heart rate during general anesthesia?]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2004; 23: 1179-81

Pharmacologic Alterations in Pregnancy

309.???? Monte S, Lyons G: In vitro evidence of gender-related heparin resistance. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 91-4

Physiologic Alterations in Pregnancy

310.????? Desai DK, Moodley J, Naidoo DP: Echocardiographic assessment of cardiovascular hemodynamics in normal pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 20-9

311.????? Damron DP, Bouchard BA, Shapiro RE, Schonberg AL, Bernstein IM: Platelet activation, sympathetic tone, and plasma volume in nulligravid women of reproductive age. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 931-6

312.????? Riskin-Mashiah S, Belfort MA, Saade GR, Herd AJ: Side-to-side differences in transcranial Doppler parameters in normotensive and preeclamptic pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 194-8

313.????? Antonazzo P, Cetin I, Tarricone D, Lombardi F, Pardi G: Cardiac autonomic modulation in normal, high-risk, and in vitro fertilization pregnancies during the first trimester. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 199-205

314.????? Saisto T, Kaaja R, Helske S, Ylikorkala O, Halmesmaki E: Norepinephrine, adrenocorticotropin, cortisol and beta-endorphin in women suffering from fear of labor: responses to the cold pressor test during and after pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004; 83: 19-26

315.????? Kametas NA, McAuliffe F, Krampl E, Chambers J, Nicolaides KH: Maternal cardiac function during pregnancy at high altitude. BJOG 2004; 111: 1051-8

316.????? Elvan-Taspinar A, Franx A, Bots ML, Bruinse HW, Koomans HA: Central hemodynamics of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Am J Hypertens 2004; 17: 941-6

317.????? Kinzler WL, Smulian JC, Ananth CV, Vintzileos AM: Noninvasive ultrasound assessment of maternal vascular reactivity during pregnancy: a longitudinal study. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 362-6

318.????? Spiropoulos K, Prodromaki E, Tsapanos V: Effect of body position on PaO2 and PaCO2 during pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2004; 58: 22-5

319.????? McAuliffe F, Kametas N, Espinoza J, Greenough A, Nicolaides K: Respiratory function in pregnancy at sea level and at high altitude. BJOG 2004; 111: 311-5

Placental Abnormalities

320.????? Prefumo F, Guven M, Ganapathy R, Thilaganathan B: The longitudinal variation in uterine artery blood flow pattern in relation to birth weight. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 764-8

321.????? Oyelese Y, Catanzarite V, Prefumo F, Lashley S, Schachter M, Tovbin Y, Goldstein V, Smulian JC: Vasa previa: the impact of prenatal diagnosis on outcomes. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 937-42



Abdominal/Interstitial Pregnancy

322.????? Rahaman J, Berkowitz R, Mitty H, Gaddipati S, Brown B, Nezhat F: Minimally invasive management of an advanced abdominal pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 1064-8

323.????? Ramachandran K, Kirk P: Massive hemorrhage in a previously undiagnosed abdominal pregnancy presenting for elective Cesarean delivery. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 57-61


324.????? Harris A, Monga M, Wicklund CA, Robbins-Furman PJ, Strecker MN, Doyle NM, Mastrobattista J: Clinical correlates of pain with amniocentesis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 542-5

Amniotic Fluid Embolism

325.????? James CF, Feinglass NG, Menke DM, Grinton SF, Papadimos TJ: Massive amniotic fluid embolism: diagnosis aided by emergency transesophageal echocardiography. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 279-83

326.????? Ray BK, Vallejo MC, Creinin MD, Shannon KT, Mandell GL, Kaul B, Ramanathan S: Amniotic fluid embolism with second trimester pregnancy termination: a case report. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 139-44

327.????? Levy R, Furman B, Hagay ZJ: Fetal bradycardia and disseminated coagulopathy: atypical presentation of amniotic fluid emboli. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004; 48: 1214-5

328.????? Aurangzeb I, George L, Raoof S: Amniotic fluid embolism. Crit Care Clin 2004; 20: 643-50

329.????? Porat S, Leibowitz D, Milwidsky A, Valsky DV, Yagel S, Anteby EY: Transient intracardiac thrombi in amniotic fluid embolism. BJOG 2004; 111: 506-10


330.????? Patrick LA, Gaudet LM, Farley AE, Rossiter JP, Tomalty LL, Smith GN: Development of a guinea pig model of chorioamnionitis and fetal brain injury. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 1205-11

331.????? Simmonds M, Jeffery H, Watson G, Russell P: Intraobserver and interobserver variability for the histologic diagnosis of chorioamnionitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 152-5

332.????? Gravett MG, Novy MJ, Rosenfeld RG, Reddy AP, Jacob T, Turner M, McCormack A, Lapidus JA, Hitti J, Eschenbach DA, Roberts CT, Jr., Nagalla SR: Diagnosis of intra-amniotic infection by proteomic profiling and identification of novel biomarkers. JAMA 2004; 292: 462-9

333.????? Rouse DJ, Landon M, Leveno KJ, Leindecker S, Varner MW, Caritis SN, O'Sullivan MJ, Wapner RJ, Meis PJ, Miodovnik M, Sorokin Y, Moawad AH, Mabie W, Conway D, Gabbe SG, Spong CY: The Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units cesarean registry: chorioamnionitis at term and its duration-relationship to outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 211-6

Grand Multiparity

334.????? Roman H, Robillard PY, Verspyck E, Hulsey TC, Marpeau L, Barau G: Obstetric and neonatal outcomes in grand multiparity. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 1294-9


335.????? Forna F, Miles AM, Jamieson DJ: Emergency peripartum hysterectomy: a comparison of cesarean and postpartum hysterectomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1440-4

336.????? Karpati PC, Rossignol M, Pirot M, Cholley B, Vicaut E, Henry P, Kevorkian JP, Schurando P, Peynet J, Jacob D, Payen D, Mebazaa A: High incidence of myocardial ischemia during postpartum hemorrhage. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 30-6; discussion 5A

337.????? Matot I, Einav S, Goodman S, Zeldin A, Weissman C, Elchalal U: A survey of physicians' attitudes toward blood transfusion in patients undergoing cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 462-7

338.????? Price G, Kaplan J, Skowronski G: Use of recombinant factor VIIa to treat life-threatening on-surgical bleeding in a post-partum patient. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93: 298-300

339.????? Tsu VD: Highlighting the role of technologies in the battle against maternal mortality: introduction to a Bellagio workshop. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2004; 85 Suppl 1: S1-2

340.????? Bhullar A, Carlan SJ, Hamm J, Lamberty N, White L, Richichi K: Buccal misoprostol to decrease blood loss after vaginal delivery: a randomized trial. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 1282-8

341.????? Brees C, Hensleigh PA, Miller S, Pelligra R: A non-inflatable anti-shock garment for obstetric hemorrhage. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2004; 87: 119-24

342.????? Descargues G, Mauger Tinlot F, Douvrin F, Clavier E, Lemoine JP, Marpeau L: Menses, fertility and pregnancy after arterial embolization for the control of postpartum haemorrhage. Hum Reprod 2004; 19: 339-43

343.????? Dildy GA, 3rd, Paine AR, George NC, Velasco C: Estimating blood loss: can teaching significantly improve visual estimation? Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 601-6

344.????? Gulmezoglu AM, Forna F, Villar J, Hofmeyr GJ: Prostaglandins for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004: CD000494

345.????? Hardy JF, De Moerloose P, Samama M: Massive transfusion and coagulopathy: pathophysiology and implications for clinical management. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 293-310

346.????? Holtsema H, Nijland R, Huisman A, Dony J, van den Berg PP: The B-Lynch technique for postpartum haemorrhage: an option for every gynaecologist. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2004; 115: 39-42

347.????? Hong TM, Tseng HS, Lee RC, Wang JH, Chang CY: Uterine artery embolization: an effective treatment for intractable obstetric haemorrhage. Clin Radiol 2004; 59: 96-101

348.????? Lighthall GK, Morgan C, Cohen SE: Correction of intraoperative coagulopathy in a patient with neurofibromatosis type I with intravenous desmopressin (DDAVP). Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 174-7

349.????? Reyal F, Sibony O, Oury JF, Luton D, Bang J, Blot P: Criteria for transfusion in severe postpartum hemorrhage: analysis of practice and risk factors. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2004; 112: 61-4

350.????? Silverman JA, Barrett J, Callum JL: The appropriateness of red blood cell transfusions in the peripartum patient. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 1000-4

351.????? Walraven G, Dampha Y, Bittaye B, Sowe M, Hofmeyr J: Misoprostol in the treatment of postpartum haemorrhage in addition to routine management: a placebo randomised controlled trial. BJOG 2004; 111: 1014-7

352.????? Wettstein P, Haeberli A, Stutz M, Rohner M, Corbetta C, Gabi K, Schnider T, Korte W: Decreased factor XIII availability for thrombin and early loss of clot firmness in patients with unexplained intraoperative bleeding. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 1564-9

353.????? Chou YJ, Cheng YF, Shen CC, Hsu TY, Chang SY, Kung FT: Failure of uterine arterial embolization: placenta accreta with profuse postpartum hemorrhage. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004; 83: 688-90

354.????? Dietz DM, Stahlfeld KR, Bansal SK, Christopherson WA: Buttock necrosis after uterine artery embolization. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 1159-61

355.????? Gol M, Baloglu A, Aydin C, Ova L, Yensel U, Karci L: Does manual removal of the placenta affect operative blood loss during cesarean section? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2004; 112: 57-60

356.????? Rizvi F, Mackey R, Barrett T, McKenna P, Geary M: Successful reduction of massive postpartum haemorrhage by use of guidelines and staff education. Bjog 2004; 111: 495-8

357.????? Rodriguez de la Torre MR, Gallego Alonso JI, Gil Fernandez M: [Pulmonary edema related to administration of 15-methyl-prostaglandin F2alpha during a cesarean section]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim 2004; 51: 104-7

358.????? Segal S, Shemesh IY, Blumental R, Yoffe B, Laufer N, Mankuta D, Mazor M, Zohar S, Schiff E, Martinovitz U: The use of recombinant factor VIIa in severe postpartum hemorrhage. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004; 83: 771-2

359.????? Waters JH: Indications and contraindications of cell salvage. Transfusion 2004; 44: 40S-4S

360.????? Wee L, Barron J, Toye R: Management of severe postpartum haemorrhage by uterine artery embolization. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93: 591-4

Hyperemesis Gravidarum

361.????? ACOG (American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology) Practice Bulletin: nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 803-14


362.????? Stotland NE, Caughey AB, Breed EM, Escobar GJ: Risk factors and obstetric complications associated with macrosomia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2004; 87: 220-6

363.????? Surkan PJ, Hsieh CC, Johansson AL, Dickman PW, Cnattingius S: Reasons for increasing trends in large for gestational age births. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 720-6

Maternal Morbidity

364.????? Brace V, Penney G, Hall M: Quantifying severe maternal morbidity: a Scottish population study. BJOG 2004; 111: 481-4

365.????? Geller SE, Rosenberg D, Cox S, Brown M, Simonson L, Kilpatrick S: A scoring system identified near-miss maternal morbidity during pregnancy. J Clin Epidemiol 2004; 57: 716-20

366.????? Ioscovich AM, Nyman DJ, Briskin A, Grisaru-Granovsky S: Transient cortical blindness after caesarean hysterectomy for placenta percreta. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 291-3

367.????? Burrows LJ, Meyn LA, Weber AM: Maternal morbidity associated with vaginal versus cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 907-12

368.????? Yossepowitch O, Baniel J, Livne PM: Urological injuries during cesarean section: intraoperative diagnosis and management. J Urol 2004; 172: 196-9

Maternal Mortality

369.????? Lewis G, Drife J: Why Mothers Die, Confidential enquiry into maternal and child health: report into maternal deaths 2000-2002, Nov 12, 2004

370.????? Geller SE, Rosenberg D, Cox SM, Brown ML, Simonson L, Driscoll CA, Kilpatrick SJ: The continuum of maternal morbidity and mortality: factors associated with severity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 939-44

371.????? Anderson FW, Hogan JG, Ansbacher R: Sudden death: ectopic pregnancy mortality. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 1218-23

372.????? Biaggi A, Paradisi G, Ferrazzani S, De Carolis S, Lucchese A, Caruso A: Maternal mortality in Italy, 1980-1996. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2004; 114: 144-9

373.????? Brettingham M: Depression and obesity are major causes of maternal death in Britain. BMJ 2004; 329: 1205

374.????? Clyburn PA: Early thoughts on 'Why Mothers Die 2000-2002'. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 1157-9

375.????? Gissler M, Berg C, Bouvier-Colle MH, Buekens P: Pregnancy-associated mortality after birth, spontaneous abortion, or induced abortion in Finland, 1987-2000. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 422-7

376.????? Gwatkin DR: Assessing inequalities in maternal mortality. Lancet 2004; 363: 5

377.????? Harper MA, Espeland MA, Dugan E, Meyer R, Lane K, Williams S: Racial disparity in pregnancy-related mortality following a live birth outcome. Ann Epidemiol 2004; 14: 274-9

378.????? Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Anderson RN, Scott C: Deaths: final data for 2002. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2004; 53: 1-115

379.????? Otterblad Olausson P, Haglund B, Ringback Weitoft G, Cnattingius S: Premature death among teenage mothers. BJOG 2004; 111: 793-9

380.????? Reardon DC, Coleman P: Pregnancy-associated mortality after birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 1506-7

381.????? Sullivan EA, Ford JB, Chambers G, Slaytor EK: Maternal mortality in Australia, 1973-1996. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 44: 452-7; discussion 377

382.????? Tsu VD: New and underused technologies to reduce maternal mortality. Lancet 2004; 363: 75-6

383.????? Wildman K, Bouvier-Colle MH: Maternal mortality as an indicator of obstetric care in Europe. BJOG 2004; 111: 164-9

384.????? Welsch H, Krone HA, Wisser J: Maternal mortality in Bavaria between 1983 and 2000. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 304-8

Multiple Gestation

385.????? ACOG Practice Bulletin #56: Multiple gestation: complicated twin, triplet, and high-order multifetal pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 869-83

386.????? Aina-Mumuney AJ, Rai KK, Taylor MY, Weitz CM, Chisholm CA: Nulliparity and duration of pregnancy in multiple gestation. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 110-3

387.????? Amaru RC, Bush MC, Berkowitz RL, Lapinski RH, Gaddipati S: Is discordant growth in twins an independent risk factor for adverse neonatal outcome? Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 71-6

388.????? Leung TY, Lok IH, Tam WH, Leung TN, Lau TK: Deterioration in cord blood gas status during the second stage of labour is more rapid in the second twin than in the first twin. BJOG 2004; 111: 546-9

389.????? Livingston JC, Livingston LW, Ramsey R, Sibai BM: Second-trimester asynchronous multifetal delivery results in poor perinatal outcome. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 77-81

390.????? Lutfi S, Allen VM, Fahey J, O'Connell CM, Vincer MJ: Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: a population-based study. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 1289-97

391.????? Salihu HM, Williams AT, McCainey TN, Kirby RS, Alexander GR: Early mortality among triplets in the United States: black-white disparity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 477-84

392.????? Smulian JC, Ananth CV, Kinzler WL, Kontopoulos E, Vintzileos AM: Twin deliveries in the United States over three decades: an age-period-cohort analysis. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 278-85

393.????? Walker MC, Murphy KE, Pan S, Yang Q, Wen SW: Adverse maternal outcomes in multifetal pregnancies. BJOG 2004; 111: 1294-6

394.????? Wen SW, Fung KF, Oppenheimer L, Demissie K, Yang Q, Walker M: Neonatal mortality in second twin according to cause of death, gestational age, and mode of delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 778-83

Obstetric Trauma/Injury/Lacerations

395.????? Donnay F, Weil L: Obstetric fistula: the international response. Lancet 2004; 363: 71-2

396.????? Dumoulin C, Lemieux MC, Bourbonnais D, Gravel D, Bravo G, Morin M: Physiotherapy for persistent postnatal stress urinary incontinence: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 504-10

397.????? Gregory WT, Lou JS, Stuyvesant A, Clark AL: Quantitative electromyography of the anal sphincter after uncomplicated vaginal delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 327-35

398.????? Holroyd-Leduc JM, Straus SE: Management of urinary incontinence in women: scientific review. JAMA 2004; 291: 986-95

399.????? Howden NL, Weber AM, Meyn LA: Episiotomy use among residents and faculty compared with private practitioners. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 114-8

400.????? Sartore A, De Seta F, Maso G, Pregazzi R, Grimaldi E, Guaschino S: The effects of mediolateral episiotomy on pelvic floor function after vaginal delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 669-73

401.????? Dandolu V, Chatwani A: Randomized comparison of chromic versus fast-absorbing polyglactin 910 for postpartum perineal repair. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 1104-5; author reply 1105

402.????? Dolan LM, Walsh D, Hamilton S, Marshall K, Thompson K, Ashe RG: A study of quality of life in primigravidae with urinary incontinence. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2004; 15: 160-4

403.????? Groutz A, Rimon E, Peled S, Gold R, Pauzner D, Lessing JB, Gordon D: Cesarean section: does it really prevent the development of postpartum stress urinary incontinence? A prospective study of 363 women one year after their first delivery. Neurourol Urodyn 2004; 23: 2-6

404.????? Lewicky CE, Valentin C, Saclarides TJ: Sexual function following sphincteroplasty for women with third- and fourth-degree perineal tears. Dis Colon Rectum 2004; 47: 1650-4

405.????? Ononeze BO, Gleeson N, Turner MJ: Management of third degree perineal tear and choice of mode of delivery in subsequent pregnancies. J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 24: 148-51

406.????? Pinta TM, Kylanpaa ML, Teramo KA, Luukkonen PS: Sphincter rupture and anal ??????????? incontinence after first vaginal delivery. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004; 83: 917-22

407.????? Rieger N, Perera S, Stephens J, Coates D, Po D: Anal sphincter function and integrity after primary repair of third-degree tear: uncontrolled prospective analysis. ANZ J Surg 2004; 74: 122-4

408.????? Saleem Z, Rydhstrom H: Vaginal hematoma during parturition: a population-based study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004; 83: 560-2

Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

409.????? Avecillas JF, Falcone T, Arroliga AC: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Crit Care Clin 2004; 20: 679-95, ix

410.????? Practice Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine: Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004; 82: S81-6


411.????? Macarthur AJ, Macarthur C: Incidence, severity, and determinants of perineal pain after vaginal delivery: a prospective cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 1199-204

Placenta Previa/Accreta

412.????? Kayem G, Davy C, Goffinet F, Thomas C, Clement D, Cabrol D: Conservative versus extirpative management in cases of placenta accreta. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 531-6

413.????? Gielchinsky Y, Mankuta D, Rojansky N, Laufer N, Gielchinsky I, Ezra Y: Perinatal outcome of pregnancies complicated by placenta accreta. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 527-30

414.????? Taipale P, Orden MR, Berg M, Manninen H, Alafuzoff I: Prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta and percreta with ultrasonography, color Doppler, and magnetic resonance imaging. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 537-40

415.????? Comstock CH, Love JJ, Jr., Bronsteen RA, Lee W, Vettraino IM, Huang RR, Lorenz RP: Sonographic detection of placenta accreta in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1135-40

Placental Abruption

416.????? Ananth CV, Oyelese Y, Srinivas N, Yeo L, Vintzileos AM: Preterm premature rupture of membranes, intrauterine infection, and oligohydramnios: risk factors for placental abruption. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 71-7

Post-term Pregnancy

417.????? ACOG Practice Bulletin. Clinical management guidelines for obstetricians-gynecologists. Number 55, September 2004 (replaces practice pattern number 6, October 1997). Management of Postterm Pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 639-46

418.????? Caughey AB, Musci TJ: Complications of term pregnancies beyond 37 weeks of gestation. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 57-62

419.????? Shin KS, Brubaker KL, Ackerson LM: Risk of cesarean delivery in nulliparous women at greater than 41 weeks' gestational age with an unengaged vertex. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 129-34

420.????? Vaisanen-Tommiska M, Nuutila M, Ylikorkala O: Cervical nitric oxide release in women postterm. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 657-62


421.????? Kause J, Parr MJ: Bilateral subcapital neck of femur fractures after eclamptic seizures. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 590-2

422.????? Levine RJ, Maynard SE, Qian C, Lim KH, England LJ, Yu KF, Schisterman EF, Thadhani R, Sachs BP, Epstein FH, Sibai BM, Sukhatme VP, Karumanchi SA: Circulating angiogenic factors and the risk of preeclampsia. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 672-83

423.????? Nafiu OO, Salam RA, Elegbe EO: Anaesthetic dilemma: spinal anaesthesia in an eclamptic patient with mild thrombocytopenia and an "impossible" airway. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 110-3

424.????? Rose CH, Thigpen BD, Bofill JA, Cushman J, May WL, Martin JN, Jr.: Obstetric implications of antepartum corticosteroid therapy for HELLP syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 1011-4

425.????? Solomon CG, Seely EW: Preeclampsia -- searching for the cause. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 641-2

426.????? Villar J, Say L, Shennan A, Lindheimer M, Duley L, Conde-Agudelo A, Merialdi M: Methodological and technical issues related to the diagnosis, screening, prevention, and treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2004; 85 Suppl 1: S28-41

427.????? Zeeman GG, Fleckenstein JL, Twickler DM, Cunningham FG: Cerebral infarction in eclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 714-20

428.????? Aly AS, Khandelwal M, Zhao J, Mehmet AH, Sammel MD, Parry S: Neutrophils are stimulated by syncytiotrophoblast microvillous membranes to generate superoxide radicals in women with preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 252-8

429.????? Chaiworapongsa T, Romero R, Espinoza J, Bujold E, Mee Kim Y, Goncalves LF, Gomez R, Edwin S: Evidence supporting a role for blockade of the vascular endothelial growth factor system in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Young Investigator Award. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1541-7; discussion 1547-50

430.????? Conde-Agudelo A, Villar J, Lindheimer M: World Health Organization systematic review of screening tests for preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 1367-91

431.????? Cotter AM, Martin CM, O'Leary J J, Daly SF: Increased fetal DNA in the maternal circulation in early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 515-20

432.????? Faber R, Baumert M, Stepan H, Wessel N, Voss A, Walther T: Baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate, and blood pressure variability in hypertensive pregnancy disorders. J Hum Hypertens 2004; 18: 707-12

433.????? Freeman DJ, McManus F, Brown EA, Cherry L, Norrie J, Ramsay JE, Clark P, Walker ID, Sattar N, Greer IA: Short- and long-term changes in plasma inflammatory markers associated with preeclampsia. Hypertension 2004; 44: 708-14

434.????? Geller SE, Ahmed S, Brown ML, Cox SM, Rosenberg D, Kilpatrick SJ: International Classification of Diseases-9th revision coding for preeclampsia: how accurate is it? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1629-33; discussion 1633-4

435.????? Haddad B, Deis S, Goffinet F, Paniel BJ, Cabrol D, Siba BM: Maternal and perinatal outcomes during expectant management of 239 severe preeclamptic women between 24 and 33 weeks' gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1590-5; discussion 1595-7

436.????? Haukkamaa L, Salminen M, Laivuori H, Leinonen H, Hiilesmaa V, Kaaja R: Risk for subsequent coronary artery disease after preeclampsia. Am J Cardiol 2004; 93: 805-8

437.????? Henry CS, Biedermann SA, Campbell MF, Guntupalli JS: Spectrum of hypertensive emergencies in pregnancy. Crit Care Clin 2004; 20: 697-712

438.????? Holthe MR, Staff AC, Berge LN, Lyberg T: Leukocyte adhesion molecules and reactive oxygen species in preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 913-22

439.????? Lee W, O'Connell CM, Baskett TF: Maternal and perinatal outcomes of eclampsia: Nova Scotia, 1981-2000. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2004; 26: 119-23

440.????? Matchaba P, Moodley J: Corticosteroids for HELLP syndrome in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004: CD002076

441.????? Matthys LA, Coppage KH, Lambers DS, Barton JR, Sibai BM: Delayed postpartum preeclampsia: an experience of 151 cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1464-6

442.????? Merviel P, Carbillon L, Challier JC, Rabreau M, Beaufils M, Uzan S: Pathophysiology of preeclampsia: links with implantation disorders. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2004; 115: 134-47

443.????? Qiu C, Luthy DA, Zhang C, Walsh SW, Leisenring WM, Williams MA: A prospective study of maternal serum C-reactive protein concentrations and risk of preeclampsia. Am J Hypertens 2004; 17: 154-60

444.????? Riskin-Mashiah S, Belfort MA: Cerebrovascular hemodynamics in pregnant women with mild chronic hypertension. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 294-8

445.????? Sibai BM, Coppage KH: Diagnosis and management of women with stroke during pregnancy/postpartum. Clin Perinatol 2004; 31: 853-68

446.????? Sibai BM: Magnesium sulfate prophylaxis in preeclampsia: Lessons learned from recent trials. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1520-6

447.????? Sibai BM: Preeclampsia: an inflammatory syndrome? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 1061-2

448.????? Thapa L, He CM, Chen HP: Study on the expression of angiotensin II (ANG II) receptor subtype 1 (AT1R) in the placenta of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Placenta 2004; 25: 637-41

449.????? Van de Velde M, Berends N, Spitz B, Teunkens A, Vandermeersch E: Low-dose combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia vs. conventional epidural anaesthesia for Caesarean section in pre-eclampsia: a retrospective analysis. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2004; 21: 454-9

450.????? Vanek M, Sheiner E, Levy A, Mazor M: Chronic hypertension and the risk for adverse pregnancy outcome after superimposed pre-eclampsia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2004; 86: 7-11

451.????? Holthe MR, Staff AC, Berge LN, Lyberg T: Different levels of platelet activation in preeclamptic, normotensive pregnant, and nonpregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1128-34

452.????? Vreeburg SA, Jacobs DJ, Dekker GA, Heard AR, Priest KR, Chan A: Hypertension during pregnancy in South Australia, part 2: risk factors for adverse maternal and/or perinatal outcome - results of multivariable analysis. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 44: 410-8

453.????? Heard AR, Dekker GA, Chan A, Jacobs DJ, Vreeburg SA, Priest KR: Hypertension during pregnancy in South Australia, part 1: pregnancy outcomes. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 44: 404-9

Preterm labor/delivery

454.????? Buchanan S, Crowther C, Morris J: Preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes: a survey of current practice. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 44: 400-3

455.????? Guinn DA: Repeat courses of antenatal corticosteroids: the controversy continues. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 585-7

456.????? McWhorter J, Carlan SJ, TD OL, Richichi K, WF OB: Rofecoxib versus magnesium sulfate to arrest preterm labor: a randomized trial. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 923-30

457.????? Anotayanonth S, Subhedar NV, Garner P, Neilson JP, Harigopal S: Betamimetics for inhibiting preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004: CD004352

458.????? Bisits A, Madsen G, Knox M, Gill A, Smith R, Yeo G, Kwek K, Daniel M, Leung TN, Cheung K, Chung T, Jones I, Toohill J, Tudehope D, Giles W: The Randomized Nitric Oxide Tocolysis Trial (RNOTT) for the treatment of preterm labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 683-90

459.????? Combs CA, McCune M, Clark R, Fishman A: Aggressive tocolysis does not prolong pregnancy or reduce neonatal morbidity after preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1723-8; discussion 1728-31

460.????? Jobe AH, Soll RF: Choice and dose of corticosteroid for antenatal treatments. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 878-81

461.????? Lee MJ, Davies J, Guinn D, Sullivan L, Atkinson MW, McGregor S, Parilla BV, Hanlon-Lundberg K, Simpson L, Stone J, Wing D, Ogasawara K, Muraskas J: Single versus weekly courses of antenatal corticosteroids in preterm premature rupture of membranes. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 274-81

462.????? Romero R, Chaiworapongsa T, Kuivaniemi H, Tromp G: Bacterial vaginosis, the inflammatory response and the risk of preterm birth: a role for genetic epidemiology in the prevention of preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1509-19

463.????? Surkan PJ, Stephansson O, Dickman PW, Cnattingius S: Previous preterm and small-for-gestational-age births and the subsequent risk of stillbirth. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 777-85

464.????? Villar J, Abalos E, Carroli G, Giordano D, Wojdyla D, Piaggio G, Campodonico L, Gulmezoglu M, Lumbiganon P, Bergsjo P, Ba'aqeel H, Farnot U, Bakketeig L, Al-Mazrou Y, Kramer M: Heterogeneity of perinatal outcomes in the preterm delivery syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 78-87

465.????? Annas GJ: Extremely preterm birth and parental authority to refuse treatment--the case of Sidney Miller. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 2118-23

466.????? Goepfert AR, Jeffcoat MK, Andrews WW, Faye-Petersen O, Cliver SP, Goldenberg RL, Hauth JC: Periodontal disease and upper genital tract inflammation in early spontaneous preterm birth. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 777-83

Pulmonary Embolism

467.????? Doyle NM, Ramirez MM, Mastrobattista JM, Monga M, Wagner LK, Gardner MO: Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 1019-23

Retained Placenta

468.????? Tanaka YO, Shigemitsu S, Ichikawa Y, Sohda S, Yoshikawa H, Itai Y: Postpartum MR diagnosis of retained placenta accreta. Eur Radiol 2004; 14: 945-52

Umbilical Cord Problems

469.????? Krakowiak P, Smith EN, de Bruyn G, Lydon-Rochelle MT: Risk factors and outcomes associated with a short umbilical cord. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 119-27

470.????? Rocha E, Totten S, Hammond R, Han V, Richardson B: Structural proteins during brain development in the preterm and near-term ovine fetus and the effect of intermittent umbilical cord occlusion. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 497-506

471.????? Gonzalez-Quintero VH, Tolaymat L, Muller AC, Izquierdo L, O'Sullivan MJ, Martin D: Outcomes of pregnancies with sonographically detected nuchal cords remote from delivery. J Ultrasound Med 2004; 23: 43-7

472.????? Kahana B, Sheiner E, Levy A, Lazer S, Mazor M: Umbilical cord prolapse and perinatal outcomes. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2004; 84: 127-32

Uterine Inversion

473.????? Beringer RM, Patteril M: Puerperal uterine inversion and shock. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 439-41

Uterine Rupure

474.????? Bujold E, Blackwell SC, Gauthier RJ: Cervical ripening with transcervical foley catheter and the risk of uterine rupture. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 18-23

475.????? Ridgeway JJ, Weyrich DL, Benedetti TJ: Fetal heart rate changes associated with uterine rupture. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 506-12

476.????? Guise JM, McDonagh MS, Osterweil P, Nygren P, Chan BK, Helfand M: Systematic review of the incidence and consequences of uterine rupture in women with previous caesarean section. BMJ 2004; 329: 19-25

Critical Care for Obstetric Patients

477.????? Gopalan PD, Muckart DJ: The critically ill obstetric patient: what's the score? Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 144-5

478.????? Karnad DR, Guntupalli KK: Critical illness and pregnancy: review of a global problem. Crit Care Clin 2004; 20: 555-76

479.????? Karnad DR, Lapsia V, Krishnan A, Salvi VS: Prognostic factors in obstetric patients admitted to an Indian intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 2004; 32: 1294-9

480.????? Mirghani HM, Hamed M, Ezimokhai M, Weerasinghe DS: Pregnancy-related admissions to the intensive care unit. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 82-5

481.????? O'Brien DJ, Hooker EA, Hignite J, Maughan E: Long-distance fixed-wing transport of obstetrical patients. South Med J 2004; 97: 816-8

482.????? Okafor UV, Aniebue U: Admission pattern and outcome in critical care obstetric patients. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 164-6

Obstetric Management

Alternative Management

483.????? Cluett ER, Pickering RM, Getliffe K, St George Saunders NJ: Randomised controlled trial of labouring in water compared with standard of augmentation for management of dystocia in first stage of labour. BMJ 2004; 328: 314

484.????? Gaffney L, Smith CA: Use of complementary therapies in pregnancy: The perceptions of obstetricians and midwives in South Australia. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 44: 24-9

485.????? Neri I, Airola G, Contu G, Allais G, Facchinetti F, Benedetto C: Acupuncture plus moxibustion to resolve breech presentation: a randomized controlled study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2004; 15: 247-52

486.????? Pinette MG, Wax J, Wilson E: The risks of underwater birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1211-5

487.????? Woodward J, Kelly SM: A pilot study for a randomised controlled trial of waterbirth ersus land birth. BJOG 2004; 111: 537-45

Antepartum Care

488.????? Turnbull DA, Wilkinson C, Gerard K, Shanahan M, Ryan P, Griffith EC, Kruzins G, Stamp GE: Clinical, psychosocial, and economic effects of antenatal day care for three medical complications of pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial of 395 women. Lancet 2004; 363: 1104-9

489.????? Lee KA, Gay CL: Sleep in late pregnancy predicts length of labor and type of delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 2041-6

Birth Centers

490.????? Reddy K, Reginald PW, Spring JE, Nunn L, Mishra N: A free-standing low-risk maternity unit in the United Kingdom: does it have a role? J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 24: 360-6


491.????? Kumari AS, Grundsell H: Mode of delivery for breech presentation in grandmultiparous women. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2004; 85: 234-9

492.????? Vezina Y, Bujold E, Varin J, Marquette GP, Boucher M: Cesarean delivery after successful external cephalic version of breech presentation at term: a comparative study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 763-8

493.????? Alarab M, Regan C, O'Connell MP, Keane DP, O'Herlihy C, Foley ME: Singleton vaginal breech delivery at term: still a safe option. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 407-12

494.????? Chan LY, Tang JL, Tsoi KF, Fok WY, Chan LW, Lau TK: Intrapartum cesarean delivery after successful external cephalic version: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 155-60

495.????? Hofmeyr GJ: Interventions to help external cephalic version for breech presentation at term. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004: CD000184

496.????? Macarthur AJ, Gagnon S, Tureanu LM, Downey KN: Anesthesia facilitation of external cephalic version: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 1219-24

497.????? Carbillon L: Vaginal versus cesarean delivery for breech presentation in California: a population-based study. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 1003-4

498.????? Haheim LL, Albrechtsen S, Berge LN, Bordahl PE, Egeland T, Henriksen T, P OI: Breech birth at term: vaginal delivery or elective cesarean section? A systematic review of the literature by a Norwegian review team. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004; 83: 126-30

499.????? Hannah ME, Whyte H, Hannah WJ, Hewson S, Amankwah K, Cheng M, Gafni A, Guselle P, Helewa M, Hodnett ED, Hutton E, Kung R, McKay D, Ross S, Saigal S, Willan A: Maternal outcomes at 2 years after planned cesarean section versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: the international randomized Term Breech Trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 917-27

500.????? Kotaska A: Inappropriate use of randomised trials to evaluate complex phenomena: case study of vaginal breech delivery. BMJ 2004; 329: 1039-42

501.????? Leung TY, Sahota DS, Fok WY, Chan LW, Lau TK: External cephalic version induced fetal cerebral and umbilical blood flow changes are related to the amount of pressure exerted. BJOG 2004; 111: 430-5

502.????? Collaris RJ, Oei SG: External cephalic version: a safe procedure? A systematic review of version-related risks. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004; 83: 511-8

Cerclage Placement

503.????? To MS, Alfirevic Z, Heath VC, Cicero S, Cacho AM, Williamson PR, Nicolaides KH: Cervical cerclage for prevention of preterm delivery in women with short cervix: randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004; 363: 1849-53

504.????? ACOG Practice Bulletin. Cervical insufficiency. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2004; 85: 81-9

505.????? Al-Fadhli R, Tulandi T: Laparoscopic abdominal cerclage. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2004; 31: 497-504

506.????? Azem F, Blaucher A, Many A: Complications of early elective cervical cerclage. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2004; 85: 52-3

507.????? Higgins SP, Kornman LH, Bell RJ, Brennecke SP: Cervical surveillance as an alternative to elective cervical cerclage for pregnancy management of suspected cervical incompetence. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 44: 228-32

508.????? Norwitz ER, Bahtiyar MO, Sibai BM: Defining standards of care in maternal-fetal medicine. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 1491-6

Cesarean Delivery

509.????? Althabe F, Belizan JM, Villar J, Alexander S, Bergel E, Ramos S, Romero M, Donner A, Lindmark G, Langer A, Farnot U, Cecatti JG, Carroli G, Kestler E: Mandatory second opinion to reduce rates of unnecessary caesarean sections in Latin America: a cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004; 363: 1934-40

510.????? Berkowitz RL: Should refusal to undergo a cesarean delivery be a criminal offense? Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 1220-1

511.????? Chelmow D, Hennesy M, Evantash EG: Prophylactic antibiotics for non-laboring patients with intact membranes undergoing cesarean delivery: an economic analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 1661-5

512.????? Kalish RB, McCullough L, Gupta M, Thaler HT, Chervenak FA: Intrapartum elective cesarean delivery: a previously unrecognized clinical entity. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 1137-41

513.????? Lin HC, Xirasagar S: Institutional factors in cesarean delivery rates: policy and research implications. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 128-36

514.????? Minkoff H, Powderly KR, Chervenak F, McCullough LB: Ethical dimensions of elective primary cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 387-92

515.????? Porter M, Bhattacharya S: Preventing unnecessary caesarean sections: marginal benefit of a second opinion. Lancet 2004; 363: 1921-2

516.????? Queenan JT: Elective cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 1135-6

517.????? Juntunen K, Makarainen L, Kirkinen P: Outcome after a high number (4-10) of repeated caesarean sections. BJOG 2004; 111: 561-3

518.????? Carvalho JC, Balki M, Kingdom J, Windrim R: Oxytocin requirements at elective cesarean delivery: a dose-finding study. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 1005-10

519.????? Dietz HP, Peek MJ: Will there ever be an end to the Caesarean section rate debate? Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 44: 103-6

520.????? Diniz SG, Chacham AS: "The cut above" and "the cut below": the abuse of caesareans and episiotomy in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Reprod Health Matters 2004; 12: 100-10

521.????? Gai MY, Wu LF, Su QF, Tatsumoto K: Clinical observation of blood loss reduced by tranexamic acid during and after caesarian section: a multi-center, randomized trial. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2004; 112: 154-7

522.????? Klein MC: Quick fix culture: the cesarean-section-on-demand debate. Birth 2004; 31: 161-4

523.????? Liu S, Rusen ID, Joseph KS, Liston R, Kramer MS, Wen SW, Kinch R: Recent trends in caesarean delivery rates and indications for caesarean delivery in Canada. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2004; 26: 735-42

524.????? Rashid M, Rashid RS: Higher order repeat caesarean sections: how safe are five or more? BJOG 2004; 111: 1090-4

525.????? Johnson R: C-Sections and the real crime, NY Times, April 12, 2004

526.????? Grady D: Moms fuming as more hospitals mandate repeat C-sections, The Denver Post, Nov 29, 2004

Induction of Labor

527.????? Bolnick JM, Velazquez MD, Gonzalez JL, Rappaport VJ, McIlwain-Dunivan G, Rayburn WF: Randomized trial between two active labor management protocols in the presence of an unfavorable cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 124-8

528.????? Levey KA, MacKenzie AP, Stephenson C, Bercik R, Kuczynski E, Funai EF: Increased rates of chorioamnionitis with extra-amniotic saline infusion method of labor induction. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 724-8

529.????? McKenna DS, Ester JB, Proffitt M, Waddell KR: Misoprostol outpatient cervical ripening without subsequent induction of labor: a randomized trial. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 579-84

530.????? Smith CA, Crowther CA: Acupuncture for induction of labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004: CD002962

531.????? Kirby RS: Trends in labor induction in the United States: is it true that what goes up must come down? Birth 2004; 31: 148-51

532.????? ACOG Committee Opinion Number 228: Induction of labor with misoprostol. Reaffirmation in 2004

Instrumental Delivery

533.????? Johnson JH, Figueroa R, Garry D, Elimian A, Maulik D: Immediate maternal and neonatal effects of forceps and vacuum-assisted deliveries. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 513-8

534.????? Damron DP, Capeless EL: Operative vaginal delivery: a comparison of forceps and vacuum for success rate and risk of rectal sphincter injury. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 907-10

535.????? de Parades V, Etienney I, Thabut D, Beaulieu S, Tawk M, Assemekang B, Marie V, Toubia ML, Wehbe A, Mosnier H, Gadonneix P, Harvey T, Atienza P: Anal sphincter injury after forceps delivery: myth or reality? A prospective ultrasound study of 93 females. Dis Colon Rectum 2004; 47: 24-34

536.????? Demissie K, Rhoads GG, Smulian JC, Balasubramanian BA, Gandhi K, Joseph KS, Kramer M: Operative vaginal delivery and neonatal and infant adverse outcomes: population based retrospective analysis. BMJ 2004; 329: 24-9

537.????? Patel RR, Murphy DJ: Forceps delivery in modern obstetric practice. BMJ 2004; 328: 1302-5

538.????? Whitby EH, Griffiths PD, Rutter S, Smith MF, Sprigg A, Ohadike P, Davies NP, Rigby AS, Paley MN: Frequency and natural history of subdural haemorrhages in babies and relation to obstetric factors. Lancet 2004; 363: 846-51

Intrapartum Care

539.????? Buhimschi CS, Buhimschi IA, Malinow AM, Weiner CP: Intrauterine pressure during the second stage of labor in obese women. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 225-30

540.????? Hofmeyr GJ: Obstructed labor: using better technologies to reduce mortality. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2004; 85 Suppl 1: S62-72

541.????? Lydon-Rochelle MT: Minimal intervention--nurse-midwives in the United States. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 1929-31

542.????? Mancuso PJ, Alexander JM, McIntire DD, Davis E, Burke G, Leveno KJ: Timing of birth after spontaneous onset of labor. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 653-6

543.????? Mehta SH, Bujold E, Blackwell SC, Sorokin Y, Sokol RJ: Is abnormal labor associated with shoulder dystocia in nulliparous women? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1604-7; discussion 1607-9

544.????? Sosa CG, Balaguer E, Alonso JG, Panizza R, Laborde A, Berrondo C: Meperidine for dystocia during the first stage of labor: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 1212-8

545.????? Cheng YW, Hopkins LM, Caughey AB: How long is too long: Does a prolonged second stage of labor in nulliparous women affect maternal and neonatal outcomes? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 933-8

546.????? Gurewitsch ED, Donithan M, Stallings SP, Moore PL, Agarwal S, Allen LM, Allen RH: Episiotomy versus fetal manipulation in managing severe shoulder dystocia: a comparison of outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 911-6

547.????? Poggi SH, Allen RH, Patel C, Deering SH, Pezzullo JC, Shin Y, Spong CY: Effect of epidural anaesthesia on clinician-applied force during vaginal delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 903-6

548.????? Quenby S, Pierce SJ, Brigham S, Wray S: Dysfunctional labor and myometrial lactic acidosis. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 718-23

549.????? Sandmire HF: Catastrophic shoulder dystocia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2004; 85: 190-4

550.????? Foley ME, Alarab M, Daly L, Keane D, Rath A, O'Herlihy C: The continuing effectiveness of active management of first labor, despite a doubling in overall nulliparous cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 891-5

551.????? Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations: Sentinel Event Alert #30, Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, July 21, 2004

Oral Intake during Labor

552.????? Levy DM, Webster VL: Unrestricted sips of water before Caesarean section. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 910

553.????? Scheepers HC, de Jong PA, Essed GG, Kanhai HH: Carbohydrate solution intake during labour just before the start of the second stage: a double-blind study on metabolic effects and clinical outcome. BJOG 2004; 111: 1382-7

Postpartum Care

554.????? Duffy BL: Post partum pneumomediastinum. Anaesth Intensive Care 2004; 32: 117-9

555.????? Makris A, Thornton C, Hennessy A: Postpartum hypertension and nonsteroidal analgesia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 577-8

556.????? Berkowitz LR: Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 20-2004. A 46-year-old woman with pelvic-floor relaxation after a second vaginal delivery. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 2699-706

557.????? Dennis CL, Creedy D: Psychosocial and psychological interventions for preventing postpartum depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004: CD001134

558.????? Handa VL, Harvey L, Fox HE, Kjerulff KH: Parity and route of delivery: does cesarean delivery reduce bladder symptoms later in life? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 463-9

559.????? Pollack J, Nordenstam J, Brismar S, Lopez A, Altman D, Zetterstrom J: Anal incontinence after vaginal delivery: a five-year prospective cohort study. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 1397-402

560.????? Dodd JM, Hedayati H, Pearce E, Hotham N, Crowther CA: Rectal analgesia for the relief of perineal pain after childbirth: a randomised controlled trial of diclofenac suppositories. Bjog 2004; 111: 1059-64

Termination of Pregnancy

561.????? Gomez PI, Gaitan H, Nova C, Paradas A: Paracervical block in incomplete abortion using manual vacuum aspiration: randomized clinical trial. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 943-51

562.????? Bartlett LA, Berg CJ, Shulman HB, Zane SB, Green CA, Whitehead S, Atrash HK: Risk factors for legal induced abortion-related mortality in the United States. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 729-37

563.????? Goldberg AB, Dean G, Kang MS, Youssof S, Darney PD: Manual versus electric vacuum aspiration for early first-trimester abortion: a controlled study of complication rates. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 101-7

564.????? Grimes DA: Emergency contraception: politics trumps science at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 220-1

565.????? Peller AJ, Westgate MN, Holmes LB: Trends in congenital malformations, 1974-1999: effect of prenatal diagnosis and elective termination. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 957-64

566.????? Porto M: A call for an evidence-based evaluation of late midtrimester abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1175-6

567.????? Hulse C: House confers legal protection on fetuses, NY Times. Feb 27, 2004

568.????? Bush signs new law on harming fetuses, NY Times, April 2, 2004

Vaginal Birth after Cesarean Delivery

569.????? ACOG Practice Bulletin #54: Vaginal birth after previous cesarean. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 203-12

570.????? Bujold E, Hammoud AO, Hendler I, Berman S, Blackwell SC, Duperron L, Gauthier RJ: Trial of labor in patients with a previous cesarean section: does maternal age influence the outcome? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1113-8

571.????? Greene MF: Vaginal birth after cesarean revisited. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 2647-9

572.????? Guise JM, Berlin M, McDonagh M, Osterweil P, Chan B, Helfand M: Safety of vaginal birth after cesarean: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 420-9

573.????? Hashima JN, Eden KB, Osterweil P, Nygren P, Guise JM: Predicting vaginal birth after cesarean delivery: a review of prognostic factors and screening tools. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 547-55

574.????? Landon MB, Hauth JC, Leveno KJ, Spong CY, Leindecker S, Varner MW, Moawad AH, Caritis SN, Harper M, Wapner RJ, Sorokin Y, Miodovnik M, Carpenter M, Peaceman AM, O'Sullivan MJ, Sibai B, Langer O, Thorp JM, Ramin SM, Mercer BM, Gabbe SG: Maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with a trial of labor after prior cesarean delivery. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 2581-9

575.????? Lieberman E, Ernst EK, Rooks JP, Stapleton S, Flamm B: Results of the national study of vaginal birth after cesarean in birth centers. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 933-42

576.????? Dodd JM, Crowther CA, Huertas E, Guise JM, Horey D: Planned elective repeat caesarean section versus planned vaginal birth for women with a previous caesarean birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004: CD004224

577.????? Grinstead J, Grobman WA: Induction of labor after one prior cesarean: predictors of vaginal delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 534-8

578.????? Hendler I, Bujold E: Effect of prior vaginal delivery or prior vaginal birth after cesarean delivery on obstetric outcomes in women undergoing trial of labor. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 273-7

579.????? Wen SW, Rusen ID, Walker M, Liston R, Kramer MS, Baskett T, Heaman M, Liu S: Comparison of maternal mortality and morbidity between trial of labor and elective cesarean section among women with previous cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 1263-9

580.????? Dodd J, Crowther C: Vaginal birth after Caesarean versus elective repeat Caesarean for women with a single prior Caesarean birth: a systematic review of the literature. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 44: 387-91

581.????? Dodd J, Crowther C: Induction of labour for women with a previous Caesarean birth: a systematic review of the literature. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 44: 392-5

582.????? Smith GC, Pell JP, Pasupathy D, Dobbie R: Factors predisposing to perinatal death related to uterine rupture during attempted vaginal birth after caesarean section: retrospective cohort study. BMJ 2004; 329: 375

583.????? Lin C, Raynor BD: Risk of uterine rupture in labor induction of patients with prior cesarean section: an inner city hospital experience. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1476-8

584.????? Cherouny: Project focuses on VBAC. ASA Newsletter 2004; 68: 6

Obstetric Anesthesia

Labor Analgesia

Alternative Techniques

585.????? Lee H, Ernst E: Acupuncture for labor pain management: A systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 1573-9

586.????? Cyna AM, McAuliffe GL, Andrew MI: Hypnosis for pain relief in labour and childbirth: a systematic review. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93: 505-11

587.????? Huntley AL, Coon JT, Ernst E: Complementary and alternative medicine for labor pain: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 36-44

588.????? Coldrey JC, Cyna AM: Suggestion, hypnosis and hypnotherapy: a survey of use, knowledge and attitudes of anaesthetists. Anaesth Intensive Care 2004; 32: 676-80

589.????? Cosans C: The meaning of natural childbirth. Perspect Biol Med 2004; 47: 266-72

590.????? Mehl-Madrona LE: Hypnosis to facilitate uncomplicated birth. Am J Clin Hypn 2004; 46: 299-312

591.????? Signore RJ: Bradley method offers option for natural childbirth. Am Fam Physician 2004; 70: 650


592.????? Frenea S, Chirossel C, Rodriguez R, Baguet JP, Racinet C, Payen JF: The effects of prolonged ambulation on labor with epidural analgesia. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 224-9

593.????? Kuczkowski KM: Ambulatory labor analgesia: what does an obstetrician need to know? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004; 83: 415-24

594.????? Roberts CL, Algert CS, Olive E: Impact of first-stage ambulation on mode of delivery among women with epidural analgesia. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 44: 489-94


595.????? Palmer C: Exploring the subdural space. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 7-8

596.????? Boon JM, Abrahams PH, Meiring JH, Welch T: Lumbar puncture: anatomical review of a clinical skill. Clin Anat 2004; 17: 544-53

597.????? Lirk P, Messner H, Deibl M, Mitterschiffthaler G, Colvin J, Steger B, Rieder J, Keller C: Accuracy in estimating the correct intervertebral space level during lumbar, thoracic and cervical epidural anaesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004; 48: 347-9

598.????? Lirk P, Moriggl B, Colvin J, Keller C, Kirchmair L, Rieder J, Kolbitsch C: The incidence of lumbar ligamentum flavum midline gaps. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1178-80

599.????? Reina MA, De Leon Casasola Ode L, Villanueva MC, Lopez A, Maches F, De Andres JA: Ultrastructural findings in human spinal pia mater in relation to subarachnoid anesthesia. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1479-85

Benefit of Labor Analgesia

600.????? Birnbach D: The public's perception of regional anesthesia: why don't they get "the point"? Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 86-9

601.????? Scicluna JK, Alderson JD, Webster VJ, Whiting P: Epidural analgesia for acute s? ymphysis pubis dysfunction in the second trimester. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 50-2


602.????? Volmanen P, Valanne J, Alahuhta S: Breast-feeding problems after epidural analgesia for labour: a retrospective cohort study of pain, obstetrical procedures and breast-feeding practices. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 25-9

CSE Technique

603.????? Lim Y, Ocampo CE, Sia AT: A comparison of duration of analgesia of intrathecal 2.5 mg of bupivacaine, ropivacaine, and levobupivacaine in combined spinal epidural analgesia for patients in labor. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 235-9

604.????? Arya VK, Malhotra SK: "Oily" streak formation on aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid into local anesthetic solution: its significance in the combined spinal-epidural technique. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 1049-50

605.????? Grau T, Leipold RW, Fatehi S, Martin E, Motsch J: Real-time ultrasonic observation of combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2004; 21: 25-31

606.????? Kuczkowski KM: Ambulation with combined spinal-epidural labor analgesia: the technique. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 2004; 55: 29-34

607.????? Van de Velde M: Combined spinal epidural analgesia for labor and delivery: a review. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 2004; 55: 17-27

Epidural Technique

608.????? Borghi B, Agnoletti V, Ricci A, van Oven H, Montone N, Casati A: A prospective, randomized evaluation of the effects of epidural needle rotation on the distribution of epidural block. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1473-8

609.????? Evron S, Sessler D, Sadan O, Boaz M, Glezerman M, Ezri T: Identification of the epidural space: loss of resistance with air, lidocaine, or the combination of air and lidocaine. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 245-50

610.????? Roelants F, Lavand'homme PM: Epidural neostigmine combined with sufentanil provides balanced and selective analgesia in early labor. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 439-44

611.????? Bartusseck E, Fatehi S, Motsch J, Grau T: [Survey on practice of regional anaesthesia in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Part 3: Methods in obstetric anaesthesia]. Anaesthesist 2004; 53: 993-1000

612.????? Lindow SW, Dhillon AR, Husaini SW, Russell IF: A randomised double-blind comparison of epidural fentanyl versus fentanyl and bupivicaine for pain relief in the second stage of labour. BJOG 2004; 111: 1075-80

613.????? Rust G, Nembhard WN, Nichols M, Omole F, Minor P, Barosso G, Mayberry R: Racial and ethnic disparities in the provision of epidural analgesia to Georgia Medicaid beneficiaries during labor and delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 456-62

614.????? Chua SM, Sia AT: Automated intermittent epidural boluses improve analgesia induced by intrathecal fentanyl during labour. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 581-5

615.????? Podder S, Kumar N, Yaddanapudi LN, Chari P: Paramedian lumbar epidural catheter insertion with patients in the sitting position is equally successful in the flexed and unflexed spine. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 1829-32


616.????? Deusch E, Benrath J, Weigl L, Neumann K, Kozek-Langenecker SA: The mechanical properties of continuous spinal small-bore catheters. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 1844-7

617.????? Gerancher JC, Weller RS: These go to eleven. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 510-1

618.????? Pan PH, Fragneto R, Moore C, Ross V: Incidence of postdural puncture headache and backache, and success rate of dural puncture: comparison of two spinal needle designs. South Med J 2004; 97: 359-63

619.????? Standl T, Stanek A, Burmeister MA, Gruschow S, Wahlen B, Muller K, Biscoping J, Adams HA: Spinal anesthesia performance conditions and side effects are comparable between the newly designed Ballpen and the Sprotte needle: results of a prospective comparative randomized multicenter study. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 512-7

620.????? van Oostrom JH, Melker RJ: Comparative testing of pulse oximeter probes. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1354-8

621.????? Yun MJ, Kim YC, Lim YJ, Choi GH, Ha M, Lee JY, Ham BM: The differential flow of epidural local anaesthetic via needle or catheter: a prospective randomized double-blind study. Anaesth Intensive Care 2004; 32: 377-82

622.????? Calthorpe N: The history of spinal needles: getting to the point. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 1231-41

Fetal Effects

623.????? Littleford J: Effects on the fetus and newborn of maternal analgesia and anesthesia: a review. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 586-609

624.????? Van de Velde M, Teunkens A, Hanssens M, Vandermeersch E, Verhaeghe J: Intrathecal sufentanil and fetal heart rate abnormalities: a double-blind, double placebo-controlled trial comparing two forms of combined spinal epidural analgesia with epidural analgesia in labor. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1153-9

625.????? Missant C, Teunkens A, Vandermeersch E, Van de Velde M: Intrathecal clonidine prolongs labour analgesia but worsens fetal outcome: a pilot study. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 696-701

Fluid Preloading

626.????? Dyer RA, Farina Z, Joubert IA, Du Toit P, Meyer M, Torr G, Wells K, James MF: Crystalloid preload versus rapid crystalloid administration after induction of spinal anaesthesia (coload) for elective caesarean section. Anaesth Intensive Care 2004; 32: 351-7

627.????? Hofmeyr G, Cyna A, Middleton P: Prophylactic intravenous preloading for regional analgesia in labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004: CD000175

Maternal Education

628.????? McCool WF, Packman J, Zwerling A: Obstetric anesthesia: changes and choices. J Midwifery Womens Health 2004; 49: 505-13

Maternal Position

629.????? Lewis NL, Ritchie EL, Downer JP, Nel MR: Left lateral vs. supine, wedged position for development of block after combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia for Caesarean section. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 894-8

630.????? De Jonge A, Lagro-Janssen AL: Birthing positions. A qualitative study into the views of women about various birthing positions. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 25: 47-55

631.????? Gupta JK, Hofmeyr GJ: Position for women during second stage of labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004: CD002006

632.????? Bahar M, Chanimov M, Cohen ML, Friedland M, Shul I, Gofman V, Gershfeld S, Geller R, Sherman DJ: The lateral recumbent head-down position decreases the incidence of epidural venous puncture during catheter insertion in obese parturients. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 577-80

633.????? Downe S, Gerrett D, Renfrew MJ: A prospective randomised trial on the effect of position in the passive second stage of labour on birth outcome in nulliparous women using epidural analgesia. Midwifery 2004; 20: 157-68

634.????? Ducloy-Bouthors AS, Davette M, Le Fahler G, Devos P, Depret-Mosser S, Krivosic-Horber R: Hip-flexed postures do not affect local anaesthetic spread following induction of epidural analgesia for labour. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 75-81

Maternal Satisfaction

635.????? Halpern SH, Muir H, Breen TW, Campbell DC, Barrett J, Liston R, Blanchard JW: A multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing patient-controlled epidural with intravenous analgesia for pain relief in labor. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 1532-8

636.????? ACOG Committee Opinion #295: pain relief during labor. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 213

637.????? Kuczkowski KM: Ethnicity, trans-cultural differences in childbirth experience and use of labor analgesia: a "real life experience". Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2004; 23: 662-3

638.????? Punger D: Importance of continuous doula support during labor. Am Fam Physician 2004; 70: 448

639.????? Thurman AR, Hulsey TC: Pregnant adolescents' preferences for labor pain management. South Med J 2004; 97: 964-7

640.????? Waldenstrom U, Hildingsson I, Rubertsson C, Radestad I: A negative birth experience: prevalence and risk factors in a national sample. Birth 2004; 31: 17-27

641.????? Pascali-Bonaro D, Kroeger M: Continuous female companionship during childbirth: a crucial resource in times of stress or calm. J Midwifery Womens Health 2004; 49: 19-27

642.????? Phillips LA: The quest for the perfect birth, NY Times. April 25, 2004

643.????? Cottrill HM, Barton JR: Factors influencing maternal perception of uterine contractions. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 455-7

Obstetric Management

644.????? Kaul B, Vallejo MC, Ramanathan S, Mandell G, Phelps AL, Daftary AR: Induction of labor with oxytocin increases cesarean section rate as compared with oxytocin for augmentation of spontaneous labor in nulliparous parturients controlled for lumbar epidural analgesia. J Clin Anesth 2004; 16: 411-4

645.????? Roberts CL, Torvaldsen S, Cameron CA, Olive E: Delayed versus early pushing in women with epidural analgesia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG 2004; 111: 1333-40

646.????? Torvaldsen S, Roberts CL, Bell JC, Raynes-Greenow CH: Discontinuation of epidural analgesia late in labour for reducing the adverse delivery outcomes associated with epidural analgesia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004: CD004457

Parenteral Technique

647.????? McInnes RJ, Hillan E, Clark D, Gilmour H: Diamorphine for pain relief in labour : a randomised controlled trial comparing intramuscular injection and patient-controlled analgesia. BJOG 2004; 111: 1081-9

648.????? Volmanen P, Alahuhta S: Will remifentanil be a labour analgesic? Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 1-4

649.????? Tsui MH, Ngan Kee WD, Ng FF, Lau TK: A double blinded randomised placebo-controlled study of intramuscular pethidine for pain relief in the first stage of labour. BJOG 2004; 111: 648-55

PCEA Technique

650.????? Purdie NL, McGrady EM: Comparison of patient-controlled epidural bolus administration of 0.1% ropivacaine and 0.1% levobupivacaine, both with 0.0002% fentanyl, for analgesia during labour. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 133-7

651.????? Boselli E, Debon R, Cimino Y, Rimmele T, Allaouchiche B, Chassard D: Background infusion is not beneficial during labor patient-controlled analgesia with 0.1% ropivacaine plus 0.5 microg/ml sufentanil. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 968-72

652.????? Evron S, Glezerman M, Sadan O, Boaz M, Ezri T: Patient-controlled epidural analgesia for labor pain: effect on labor, delivery and neonatal outcome of 0.125% bupivacaine vs 0.2% ropivacaine. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 5-10

653.????? Gogarten W, Van de Velde M, Soetens E, Van Aken H, Brodner G, Gramke HF, Soetenst M, Marcus MA: A multicentre trial comparing different concentrations of ropivacaine plus sufentanil with bupivacaine plus sufentanil for patient-controlled epidural analgesia in labour. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2004; 21: 38-45

654.????? Paech M: Regimens for patient-controlled epidural analgesia during labor. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 1482; author reply 1482-3

655.????? Vernis L, Duale C, Storme B, Mission JP, Rol B, Schoeffler P: Perispinal analgesia for labour followed by patient-controlled infusion with bupivacaine and sufentanil: combined spinal-epidural vs. epidural analgesia alone. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2004; 21: 186-92


656.????? Benhamou D: Are local anesthetics needed for local anesthesia? Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 271-2

657.????? Strumper D, Gogarten W, Durieux ME, Hartleb K, Van Aken H, Marcus MA: The effects of S+-ketamine and racemic ketamine on uterine blood flow in chronically instrumented pregnant sheep. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 497-502

658.????? Debon R, Boselli E, Guyot R, Allaouchiche B, Lemmer B, Chassard D: Chronopharmacology of intrathecal sufentanil for labor analgesia: daily variations in duration of action. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 978-82

659.????? Beckman M: Neuroscience. The mice that don't miss mom: love and the mu-opioid receptor. Science 2004; 304: 1888-9

660.????? Higuchi H, Adachi Y, Kazama T: Factors affecting the spread and duration of epidural anesthesia with ropivacaine. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 451-60

661.????? Kallio H, Snall EV, Kero MP, Rosenberg PH: A comparison of intrathecal plain solutions containing ropivacaine 20 or 15 mg versus bupivacaine 10 mg. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 713-7

662.????? McLeod GA: Density of spinal anaesthetic solutions of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine with and without dextrose. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 547-51

663.????? Priston MJ, Hughes JM, Santillo M, Christie IW: Stability of an epidural analgesic admixture containing epinephrine, fentanyl and bupivacaine. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 979-83

664.????? Skarke C, Kirchhof A, Geisslinger G, Lotsch J: Comprehensive mu-opioid-receptor genotyping by pyrosequencing. Clin Chem 2004; 50: 640-4

665.????? Wille M: Intrathecal use of ropivacaine: a review. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 2004; 55: 251-9

666.????? Wong CA, Scavone BM, Slavenas JP, Vidovich MI, Peaceman AM, Ganchiff JN, Strauss-Hoder T, McCarthy RJ: Efficacy and side effect profile of varying doses of intrathecal fentanyl added to bupivacaine for labor analgesia. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 19-24

667.????? Kouri ME, Kopacz DJ: Spinal 2-chloroprocaine: a comparison with lidocaine in volunteers. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 75-80

668.????? Abdel-Rahman SM, Kauffman RE: The integration of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: understanding dose-response. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2004; 44: 111-36

669.????? Beers R, Camporesi E: Remifentanil update: clinical science and utility. CNS Drugs 2004; 18: 1085-104

670.????? Cooper DW: Evidence of clinical benefits from the predominant spinal action of bolus-dose epidural fentanyl. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1501-2; author reply 1502

671.????? Lacassie HJ, Lacassie HP, Muir HA: Is the minimum local analgesic concentration method robust enough? Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 550; author reply 550-1

672.????? Liem EB, Lin CM, Suleman MI, Doufas AG, Gregg RG, Veauthier JM, Loyd G, Sessler DI: Anesthetic requirement is increased in redheads. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 279-83

673.????? Mangoni AA, Jackson SH: Age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: basic principles and practical applications. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 57: 6-14

674.????? Naguib M, Lien CA, Aker J, Eliazo R: Posttetanic potentiation and fade in the response to tetanic and train-of-four stimulation during succinylcholine-induced block. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1686-91

675.????? Tucker AP, Lai C, Nadeson R, Goodchild CS: Intrathecal midazolam I: a cohort study investigating safety. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1512-20

676.????? Tucker AP, Mezzatesta J, Nadeson R, Goodchild CS: Intrathecal midazolam II: combination with intrathecal fentanyl for labor pain. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1521-7

677.????? Yaksh TL, Allen JW: The use of intrathecal midazolam in humans: a case study of process. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1536-45

678.????? Cadet P: Mu opiate receptor subtypes. Med Sci Monit 2004; 10: MS28-32

679.????? Eisenach JC, Hood DD, Curry R, Sawynok J, Yaksh TL, Li X: Intrathecal but not intravenous opioids release adenosine from the spinal cord. J Pain 2004; 5: 64-8


680.????? von Ungern-Sternberg BS, Regli A, Bucher E, Reber A, Schneider MC: The effect of epidural analgesia in labour on maternal respiratory function. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 350-3

681.????? Aya AG, Vialles N, Mangin R, Robert C, Ferrer JM, Ripart J, de La Coussaye JE: Chronobiology of labour pain perception: an observational study. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93: 451-3

682.????? Deschamps A, Kaufman I, Backman SB, Plourde G: Autonomic nervous system response to epidural analgesia in laboring patients by wavelet transform of heart rate and blood pressure variability. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 21-7

683.????? Kim H, Neubert JK, San Miguel A, Xu K, Krishnaraju RK, Iadarola MJ, Goldman D, Dionne RA: Genetic influence on variability in human acute experimental pain sensitivity associated with gender, ethnicity and psychological temperament. Pain 2004; 109: 488-96

684.????? Arakawa M: Does pregnancy increase the efficacy of lumbar epidural anesthesia? Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 86-90

685.????? Santos SF, Melnick IV, Safronov BV: Selective postsynaptic inhibition of tonic-firing neurons in substantia gelatinosa by mu-opioid agonist. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 1177-8

686.????? Takahashi Y, Yamaguchi S, Tezuka M, Kimura Y, Nagao M, Yamazaki H, Hamaguchi S: Comparison of 0.2% ropivacaine, 0.125% bupivacaine, and 0.25% bupivacaine for duration and magnitude of action in peripheral arterial blood flow induced by sympathetic block in dogs. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 441-5

687.????? Tanaka M, Goyagi T, Kimura T, Nishikawa T: The effects of cervical and lumbar epidural anesthesia on heart rate variability and spontaneous sequence baroreflex sensitivity. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 924-9

688.????? Yildirim M, Oktem M, Yilmaz AO: Fetal and maternal adrenal steroid levels and labor. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2004; 85: 274-5

Progress of Labor/Outcome

689.????? Vahratian A, Zhang J, Hasling J, Troendle JF, Klebanoff MA, Thorp JM, Jr.: The effect of early epidural versus early intravenous analgesia use on labor progression: a natural experiment. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 259-65

690.????? Sharma SK, McIntire DD, Wiley J, Leveno KJ: Labor analgesia and cesarean delivery: an individual patient meta-analysis of nulliparous women. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 142-8; discussion 6A

691.????? Liu EH, Sia AT: Rates of caesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery in nulliparous women after low concentration epidural infusions or opioid analgesia: systematic review. BMJ 2004; 328: 1410

692.????? Lee BB, Ngan Kee WD, Ng FF, Lau TK, Wong EL: Epidural infusions of ropivacaine and bupivacaine for labor analgesia: a randomized, double-blind study of obstetric outcome. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1145-52

693.????? Lieberman E: Epidemiology of epidural analgesia and cesarean delivery. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2004; 47: 317-31

Spinal Technique

694.????? Atallah MM, Demian AD, Shorrab AA: Development of a difficulty score for spinal anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 354-60

695.????? Jung CW, Bahk JH, Lee JH, Lim YJ: The tenth rib line as a new landmark of the lumbar vertebral level during spinal block. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 359-63

696.????? Hocking G, Wildsmith JA: Intrathecal drug spread. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93: 568-78

697.????? Ng A, Shah J, Smith G: Is continuous spinal analgesia via an epidural catheter appropriate after accidental subarachnoid administration of 15 mL of bupivacaine 0.1% containing fentanyl 2 micrograms/mL? Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 107-9

Termination of Pregnancy

698.????? Edelman A, Nichols MD, Leclair C, Astley S, Shy K, Jensen JT: Intrauterine lidocaine infusion for pain management in first-trimester abortions. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 1267-72

Test Dose

699.????? Camorcia M, Capogna G, Lyons G, Columb M: Epidural test dose with levobupivacaine and ropivacaine: determination of ED(50) motor block after spinal administration. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 850-3

700.????? Owen MD, Gautier P, Hood DD: Can ropivacaine and levobupivacaine be used as test doses during regional anesthesia? Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 922-5

701.????? Kuczkowski KM: Standard epidural test dose in obstetric anesthesia: it is not obsolete, but has a risk/benefit ratio. J Clin Anesth 2004; 16: 477; author reply 477

702.????? Livingstone H, Lyons G: Epidural test dose: what works? Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 128; author reply 128-9

Anesthesia for Cerclage Placement

Anesthesia for Cesarean Delivery

General Anesthesia

703.????? Chin KJ, Yeo SW: Bispectral index values at sevoflurane concentrations of 1% and 1.5% in lower segment cesarean delivery. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1140-4

704.????? Brimacombe J, von Goedecke A, Keller C, Brimacombe L, Brimacombe M: The laryngeal mask airway Unique versus the Soft Seal laryngeal mask: a randomized, crossover study in paralyzed, anesthetized patients. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 1560-3

705.????? Carvalho B, Mirikitani EJ, Lyell D, Evans DA, Druzin M, Riley ET: Neonatal chest wall rigidity following the use of remifentanil for cesarean delivery in a patient with autoimmune hepatitis and thrombocytopenia. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 53-6

706.????? Chin KJ, Yeo SW: A BIS-guided study of sevoflurane requirements for adequate depth of anaesthesia in Caesarean section. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 1064-8

707.????? Combes X, Le Roux B, Suen P, Dumerat M, Motamed C, Sauvat S, Duvaldestin P, Dhonneur G: Unanticipated difficult airway in anesthetized patients: prospective validation of a management algorithm. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 1146-50

708.????? Goldszmidt E, Brimacombe J, Keller C: Awake intubation is indicated in pregnant women with difficult airways. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 1577-8; author reply 1578

709.????? Gursoy S, Kaya T, Kunt N, Karadas B, Bagcivan I, Kafali H: Interactive effect of sevoflurane with isradipine or indomethacin on spontaneous contractile activity of isolated pregnant rat myometrium. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 234-8

710.????? Harle CC, McKendrick R: Fresh frozen plasma for succinylcholine apnoea. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 89; author reply 89-90

711.????? Kan RK, Lew E, Yeo SW, Thomas E: General anesthesia for cesarean section in a Singapore maternity hospital: a retrospective survey. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 221-6

712.????? Minville V, N'Guyen L, Coustet B, Fourcade O, Samii K: Difficult airway in obstetric using Ilma-Fastrach. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 1873

713.????? Smiley R: Partners should be allowed to stay in the operating theatre during caesarean section under general anaesthesia. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 253-6

714.????? Robinson N: Partners should be allowed to stay in the operating theatre during caesarean section under general anaesthesia. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 251-3

715.????? Sebel PS, Bowdle TA, Ghoneim MM, Rampil IJ, Padilla RE, Gan TJ, Domino KB: The incidence of awareness during anesthesia: a multicenter United States study. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 833-9

716.????? Ganidagli S, Cengiz M, Baysal Z: Effect of ephedrine on the onset time of succinylcholine. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004; 48: 1306-9

717.????? Paech MJ, Lain J, Garrett WR, Gillespie G, Stannard KJ, Doherty DA: Randomized evaluation of the single-use SoftSeal and the re-useable LMA Classic laryngeal mask. Anaesth Intensive Care 2004; 32: 66-72

718.????? Parry K, Owen H: Small simulators for teaching procedural skills in a difficult airway algorithm. Anaesth Intensive Care 2004; 32: 401-9

719.????? Reeves MD, Skinner MW, Ginifer CJ: Evaluation of the Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway used by occasional intubators in simulated trauma. Anaesth Intensive Care 2004; 32: 73-6

720.????? Rosenstock C, Ostergaard D, Kristensen MS, Lippert A, Ruhnau B, Rasmussen LS: Residents lack knowledge and practical skills in handling the difficult airway. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004; 48: 1014-8

721.????? Van de Velde M, Teunkens A, Kuypers M, Dewinter T, Vandermeersch E: General anaesthesia with target controlled infusion of propofol for planned caesarean section: maternal and neonatal effects of a remifentanil-based technique. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 153-8

722.????? Robins K, Lyons G: Male anaesthetists--a risk factor for caesarean section under general anaesthesia? Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 57

723.????? Herriger A, Frascarolo P, Spahn DR, Magnusson L: The effect of positive airway pressure during pre-oxygenation and induction of anaesthesia upon duration of non-hypoxic apnoea. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 243-7


724.????? Khaw KS, Ngan Kee WD, Lee A, Wang CC, Wong AS, Ng F, Rogers MS: Supplementary oxygen for elective Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia: useful in prolonged uterine incision-to-delivery interval? Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 518-22

725.????? Chiron B, Laffon M, Ferrandiere M, Pittet JF, Marret H, Mercier C: Standard preoxygenation technique versus two rapid techniques in pregnant patients. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 11-4

726.????? Palmer C Nogami W: Supplemental oxygen. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: A1206

Preoperative Evaluation

727.????? Wickwire JC, Gross JB: From preop to postop: Cesarean delivery from the anesthesiologist's point of view. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2004; 47: 299-316

Postoperative Hypothermia/Shivering

728.????? Roy JD, Girard M, Drolet P: Intrathecal meperidine decreases shivering during cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 230-4

729.????? Yu SC, Ngan Kee WD, Kwan AS: Intrathecal meperidine and shivering in obstetric anesthesia. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 1272-3

Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

730.????? Apfel CC, Korttila K, Abdalla M, Kerger H, Turan A, Vedder I, Zernak C, Danner K, Jokela R, Pocock SJ, Trenkler S, Kredel M, Biedler A, Sessler DI, Roewer N: A factorial trial of six interventions for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 2441-51

731.????? Fujii Y, Numazaki M: Randomized, double-blind comparison of subhypnotic-dose propofol alone and combined with dexamethasone for emesis in parturients undergoing cesarean delivery. Clin Ther 2004; 26: 1286-91

732.????? Gan TJ, Jiao KR, Zenn M, Georgiade G: A randomized controlled comparison of electro-acupoint stimulation or ondansetron versus placebo for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 1070-5

733.????? Habib AS, Gan TJ: Evidence-based management of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a review. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 326-41

734.????? Kim ES, Lee J, Choi JH: Optimal dose range of epidural naloxone to reduce nausea in patients receiving epidural morphine. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 1048-9

735.????? Parlow JL, Costache I, Avery N, Turner K: Single-dose haloperidol for the prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting after intrathecal morphine. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1072-6

736.????? Pierre S, Corno G, Benais H, Apfel CC: A risk score-dependent antiemetic approach effectively reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting--a continuous quality improvement initiative. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 320-5

737.????? Stadler M: Should we be more rigorous with anti-emetic prophylaxis? Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 2004; 55 Suppl: 85-94

738.????? Streitberger K, Diefenbacher M, Bauer A, Conradi R, Bardenheuer H, Martin E, Schneider A, Unnebrink K: Acupuncture compared to placebo-acupuncture for postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis: a randomised placebo-controlled patient and observer blind trial. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 142-9

739.????? White PF: Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting--a multimodal solution to a persistent problem. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 2511-2

Postoperative Pain Management

740.????? Leung AY: Postoperative pain management in obstetric anesthesia--new challenges and solutions. J Clin Anesth 2004; 16: 57-65

741.????? Nikolajsen L, Sorensen HC, Jensen TS, Kehlet H: Chronic pain following Caesarean section. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004; 48: 111-6

742.????? Paech MJ, Pavy TJ, Orlikowski CE, Yeo ST, Banks SL, Evans SF, Henderson J: Postcesarean analgesia with spinal morphine, clonidine, or their combination. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1460-6

743.????? Yost NP, Bloom SL, Sibley MK, Lo JY, McIntire DD, Leveno KJ: A hospital-sponsored quality improvement study of pain management after cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1341-6

744.????? Dahan A, Romberg R, Teppema L, Sarton E, Bijl H, Olofsen E: Simultaneous measurement and integrated analysis of analgesia and respiration after an intravenous morphine infusion. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 1201-9

745.????? Kaya FN, Sahin S, Owen MD, Eisenach JC: Epidural neostigmine produces analgesia but also sedation in women after cesarean delivery. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 381-5

746.????? Cepeda MS, Alvarez H, Morales O, Carr DB: Addition of ultralow dose naloxone to postoperative morphine PCA: unchanged analgesia and opioid requirement but decreased incidence of opioid side effects. Pain 2004; 107: 41-6

747.????? Gan TJ, Lubarsky DA, Flood EM, Thanh T, Mauskopf J, Mayne T, Chen C: Patient preferences for acute pain treatment. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 681-8

748.????? Sveticic G, Gentilini A, Eichenberger U, Zanderigo E, Sartori V, Luginbuhl M, Curatolo M: Combinations of bupivacaine, fentanyl, and clonidine for lumbar epidural postoperative analgesia: a novel optimization procedure. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 1381-93

749.????? Viscusi ER, Reynolds L, Chung F, Atkinson LE, Khanna S: Patient-controlled transdermal fentanyl hydrochloride vs intravenous morphine pump for postoperative pain: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 291: 1333-41

750.????? Carvalho B, Riley E, Manelian G: Phase II study of long-acting encapsulated epidural morphine for postoperative pain after cesarean section. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: A37


751.????? Lee LH, Irwin MG, Lim J, Wong CK: The effect of celecoxib on intrathecal morphine-induced pruritus in patients undergoing Caesarean section. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 876-80

Regional Anesthesia

752.????? Danelli G, Fanelli G, Berti M, Cornini A, Lacava L, Nuzzi M, Fanelli A: Spinal ropivacaine or bupivacaine for cesarean delivery: a prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 221-6

753.????? Fassoulaki A, Gatzou V, Petropoulos G, Siafaka I: Spread of subarachnoid block, intraoperative local anaesthetic requirements and postoperative analgesic requirements in Caesarean section and total abdominal hysterectomy. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93: 678-82

754.????? Goy RW, Sia AT: Sensorimotor anesthesia and hypotension after subarachnoid block: combined spinal-epidural versus single-shot spinal technique. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 491-6

755.????? Jain K, Grover VK, Mahajan R, Batra YK: Effect of varying doses of fentanyl with low dose spinal bupivacaine for caesarean delivery in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 215-20

756.????? Moore P: Epidural top-ups for category I/II emergency caesarean section should be given only in the operating theatre. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 257-9

757.????? Russell IF: Epidural top-ups for category I/II emergency caesarean section should be given only in the operating theatre. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 259-65

758.????? Russell IF: A comparison of cold, pinprick and touch for assessing the level of spinal block at caesarean section. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 146-52

759.????? Sanders RD, Mallory S, Lucas DN, Chan T, Yeo S, Yentis SM: Extending low-dose epidural analgesia for emergency Caesarean section using ropivacaine 0.75%. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 988-92

760.????? Ginosar Y, Mirikatani E, Drover DR, Cohen SE, Riley ET: ED50 and ED95 of intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine coadministered with opioids for cesarean delivery. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 676-82

761.????? Lew E, Yeo SW, Thomas E: Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia using epidural volume extension leads to faster motor recovery after elective cesarean delivery: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 810-4

762.????? Doufas AG, Wadhwa A, Shah YM, Lin CM, Haugh GS, Sessler DI: Block-dependent sedation during epidural anaesthesia is associated with delayed brainstem conduction. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93: 228-34

Timing of Delivery

763.????? Holcroft CJ, Graham EM, Aina-Mumuney A, Rai KK, Henderson JL, Penning DH: Cord Gas Analysis, Decision-to-Delivery Interval, and the 30-Minute Rule for Emergency Cesareans. J Perinatol 2004

764.????? Lurie S, Sulema V, Kohen-Sacher B, Sadan O, Glezerman M: The decision to delivery interval in emergency and non-urgent cesarean sections. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2004; 113: 182-5

765.????? Nasrallah FK, Harirah HM, Vadhera R, Jain V, Franklin LT, Hankins GD: The 30-minute decision-to-incision interval for emergency cesarean delivery: fact or fiction? Am J Perinatol 2004; 21: 63-8

766.????? Sayegh I, Dupuis O, Clement HJ, Rudigoz RC: Evaluating the decision--to--delivery interval in emergency caesarean sections. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2004; 116: 28-33

767.????? Thomas J, Paranjothy S, James D: National cross sectional survey to determine whether the decision to delivery interval is critical in emergency caesarean section. BMJ 2004; 328: 665

768.????? Zanardo V, Simbi AK, Franzoi M, Solda G, Salvadori A, Trevisanuto D: Neonatal respiratory morbidity risk and mode of delivery at term: influence of timing of elective caesarean delivery. Acta Paediatr 2004; 93: 643-7


769.????? Sun HL, Ling QD, Sun WZ, Wu RS, Wu TJ, Wang SC, Chien CC: Lower limb wrapping prevents hypotension, but not hypothermia or shivering, after the introduction of epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 241-4

770.????? Ngan Kee WD, Khaw KS, Ng FF: Comparison of phenylephrine infusion regimens for maintaining maternal blood pressure during spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean section. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 469-74

771.????? Erkinaro T, Makikallio K, Kavasmaa T, Alahuhta S, Rasanen J: Effects of ephedrine and phenylephrine on uterine and placental circulations and fetal outcome following fetal hypoxaemia and epidural-induced hypotension in a sheep model. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93: 825-32

772.????? Lee A, Ngan Kee WD, Gin T: A dose-response meta-analysis of prophylactic intravenous ephedrine for the prevention of hypotension during spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 483-90

773.????? Ngan Kee WD, Khaw KS, Ng FF, Lee BB: Prophylactic phenylephrine infusion for preventing hypotension during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 815-21

774.????? Riley ET: Editorial I: Spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean delivery: keep the pressure up and don't spare the vasoconstrictors. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 459-61

775.????? Vane LA, Prough DS, Kinsky MA, Williams CA, Grady JJ, Kramer GC: Effects of different catecholamines on the dynamics of volume expansion of crystalloid infusion. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 1136-44

776.????? Cooper DW, Jeyaraj L, Hynd R, Thompson R, Meek T, Ryall DM, Kokri MS: Evidence that intravenous vasopressors can affect rostral spread of spinal anesthesia in pregnancy. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 28-33

777.????? Cooper DW, Mowbray P: Advantages of using a prophylactic phenylephrine infusion during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 124-5; author reply 125-6

778.????? Dyer RA, Rout CC, Kruger AM, van der Vyver M, Lamacraft G, James MF: Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular instability during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. S Afr Med J 2004; 94: 367-72

Anesthesia for Postpartum Tubal Ligation

Anesthetic Complications


779.????? Fikkers BG, van Vugt S, van der Hoeven JG, van den Hoogen FJ, Marres HA: Emergency cricothyrotomy: a randomised crossover trial comparing the wire-guided and catheter-over-needle techniques. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 1008-11

780.????? Asai T, Shingu K: Difficulty in advancing a tracheal tube over a fibreoptic bronchoscope: incidence, causes and solutions. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 870-81

781.????? Henderson JJ, Popat MT, Latto IP, Pearce AC: Difficult Airway Society guidelines for management of the unanticipated difficult intubation. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 675-94

782.????? Hilditch WG, Kopka A, Crawford JM, Asbury AJ: Interobserver reliability between a nurse and anaesthetist of tests used for predicting difficult tracheal intubation. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 881-4

783.????? Matioc AA, Olson J: Use of the Laryngeal Tube in two unexpected difficult airway situations: lingual tonsillar hyperplasia and morbid obesity. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 1018-21

784.????? Munnur U, Suresh MS: Airway problems in pregnancy. Crit Care Clin 2004; 20: 617-42

785.????? Singh S, Loeb RG: Fatal connection: death caused by direct connection of oxygen tubing into a tracheal tube connector. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 1164-5

786.????? Trentman TL, Frasco PE, Milde LN: Utility of letters sent to patients after difficult airway management. J Clin Anesth 2004; 16: 257-61

787.????? Vadodaria BS, Gandhi SD, McIndoe AK: Comparison of four different emergency airway access equipment sets on a human patient simulator. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 73-9

788.????? Varaday SS, Yentis SM, Clarke S: A homemade model for training in cricothyrotomy. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 1012-5

789.????? Awan R, Nolan JP, Cook TM: Use of a ProSeal laryngeal mask airway for airway maintenance during emergency Caesarean section after failed tracheal intubation. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 144-6

790.????? Keller C, Brimacombe J, Lirk P, Puhringer F: Failed obstetric tracheal intubation and postoperative respiratory support with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1467-70

791.????? Fodale V, Pratico C, Leto G, Caminiti V, Mazzeo AT, Lucanto T: Propofol relieves post-extubation laryngospasm in obstetric anesthesia. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 196-7


792.????? Eckinger P, Ratner E, Brock-Utne J: Latex allergy: oh, what a surprise! Another reason why all anesthesia equipment should be latex-free. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 629

793.????? Fisher MM, Doig GS: Prevention of anaphylactic reactions to anaesthetic drugs. Drug Saf 2004; 27: 393-410

794.????? Heytman M, Rainbird A: Use of alpha-agonists for management of anaphylaxis occurring under anaesthesia: case studies and review. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 1210-5

795.????? Lee CW, Castells MC: Perioperative anaphylaxis to cefazolin. Allergy Asthma Proc 2004; 25: 23-6

796.????? Mertes PM, Laxenaire MC: Adverse reactions to neuromuscular blocking agents. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2004; 4: 7-16

797.????? Soetens FM: Anaphylaxis during anaesthesia: diagnosis and treatment. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 2004; 55: 229-37

798.????? Blanshard HJ, Milne MR: Latex-free reservoir bags: exchanging one potential hazard for another. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 177-9


799.????? Ou CH, Tsou MY, Ting CK, Chiou CS, Chan KH, Tsai SK: Occurrence of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex during Cesarean section under spinal anesthesia--a case report. Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan 2004; 42: 175-8

800.????? Kuczkowski KM: Myocardial ischemia induced by intramyometrial injection of methylergonovine maleate. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 1043

801.????? Kuczkowski KM: New onset transient lone atrial fibrillation in a healthy parturient: deja vu. Int J Cardiol 2004; 97: 339

Aspiration/Aspiration Prophylaxis

802.????? Hong JY: Comparison of preoperative gastric content and risk factors in elective and intrapartum Cesarean delivery. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 742-3

803.????? Tourtier JP, Compain M, Petitjeans F, Villevieille T, Chevalier JF, Mercier FJ, Benhamou D: Acid aspiration prophylaxis in obstetrics in France: a comparative survey of 1998 vs. 1988 French practice. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2004; 21: 89-94

804.????? Keller C, Brimacombe J, Bittersohl J, Lirk P, von Goedecke A: Aspiration and the laryngeal mask airway: three cases and a review of the literature. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93: 579-82

Cardiac Arrest

805.????? Pan PH, Moore CH, Ross VH: Severe maternal bradycardia and asystole after combined spinal-epidural labor analgesia in a morbidly obese parturient. J Clin Anesth 2004; 16: 461-4

Drug Error

806.????? Hampton T: Bar codes mandated for hospital meds. JAMA 2004; 291: 1685-6

807.????? Jensen LS, Merry AF, Webster CS, Weller J, Larsson L: Evidence-based strategies for preventing drug administration errors during anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 493-504

808.????? Murdoch JA, Lane J, Goldstein DH: Drug labelling and a near miss in the labour suite. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 854-5

809.????? Orser BA, Byrick R: Anesthesia-related medication error: time to take action. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 756-60

810.????? Sidi A, Froelich MA: Inadvertent epidural injection of ephedrine in labor. J Clin Anesth 2004; 16: 74-6

811.????? Strock D, Kuczkowski KM, Greenberg M: Accidental administration of succinylcholine for the treatment of hypotension in a labouring parturient. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 853-4

Drug Exposure

812.????? Zeidan A, Baraka A: Is euphoria a side-effect of lidocaine? Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 1253-4


813.????? Mahajan R, Grover VK, Kumar S: Another cause of distortion of the spinal needle. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 297-8

814.????? Kuczkowski KM: Epidural catheter disconnection: an equipment failure or an operator error? Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2004; 23: 663

815.????? McGlennan A, Esler M, Stocks G, Pandit V: PFA-100 and regional analgesia in a parturient after ibuprofen overdose. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 776-7

816.????? Calvert N, Hind D, McWilliams R, Davidson A, Beverley CA, Thomas SM: Ultrasound for central venous cannulation: economic evaluation of cost-effectiveness. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 1116-20

Hearing Impairment/Loss

817.????? Ok G, Tok D, Erbuyun K, Aslan A, Tekin I: Hearing loss does not occur in young patients undergoing spinal anesthesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 430-3

818.????? Salvinelli F: Hearing loss following general anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004; 48: 929-30

High/Total Spinal

819.????? Reyes M, Pan PH: Very low-dose spinal anesthesia for cesarean section in a morbidly obese preeclamptic patient and its potential implications. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 99-102

820.????? Anand S, Gupta M, Singh B: A case of extensive block during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean delivery: is there some room to go wrong? Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 61-2

821.????? Collier C: A high spinal or a subdural block? Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 293; author reply 293-4

822.????? Steffek M, Owczuk R, Szlyk-Augustyn M, Lasinska-Kowara M, Wujtewicz M: Total spinal anaesthesia as a complication of local anaesthetic test-dose administration through an epidural catheter. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004; 48: 1211-3


823.????? Holte K, Foss NB, Svensen C, Lund C, Madsen JL, Kehlet H: Epidural anesthesia, hypotension, and changes in intravascular volume. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 281-6

Inadequate Anesthesia

824.????? Collier CB: Accidental subdural injection during attempted lumbar epidural block may present as a failed or inadequate block: radiographic evidence. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 45-51

825.????? Dadarkar P, Philip J, Weidner C, Perez B, Slaymaker E, Tabaczewska L, Wiley J, Sharma S: Spinal anesthesia for cesarean section following inadequate labor epidural analgesia: a retrospective audit. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 239-43

826.????? Pan PH, Bogard TD, Owen MD: Incidence and characteristics of failures in obstetric neuraxial analgesia and anesthesia: a retrospective analysis of 19,259 deliveries. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 227-33

827.????? Smiley RM, Redai I: More failed spinal anesthetics with hyperbaric bupivacaine. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 131-4


828.????? Schroeder TH, Krueger WA, Neeser E, Hahn U, Unertl K: Spinal epidural abscess--a rare complication after epidural analgesia for labour and delivery. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 896-8

829.????? Bayshev FK: The sterility of fentanyl vials. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 627

830.????? Ay B, Gercek A, Konya D, Ozgen S: Spinal abscess after epidural anesthesia: need for more vigilance and better patient advice. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2004; 16: 184-5

831.????? Bluman EM, Palumbo MA, Lucas PR: Spinal epidural abscess in adults. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2004; 12: 155-63

832.????? Cohen S, Samet R: Catheter-related epidural abscesses--reevaluating a true sterile technique. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004; 48: 794-5

833.????? Katz JD: Hand washing and hand disinfection: more than your mother taught you. Anesthesiol Clin North America 2004; 22: 457-71, vi

834.????? Kawasaki T, Kawasaki C, Ogata M, Shigematsu A: The effect of local anesthetics on monocyte mCD14 and human leukocyte antigen-DR expression. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1024-9

835.????? Steffen P, Seeling W, Essig A, Stiepan E, Rockemann MG: Bacterial contamination of epidural catheters: microbiological examination of 502 epidural catheters used for postoperative analgesia. J Clin Anesth 2004; 16: 92-7

836.????? Veiga Sanchez AR: [Vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess after epidural anesthesia for a cesarean section]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim 2004; 51: 44-6

Intravenous Toxicity

837.????? Dernedde M, Furlan D, Verbesselt R, Gepts E, Boogaerts JG: Grand mal convulsion after an accidental intravenous injection of ropivacaine. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 521-3

838.????? Friederich P, Solth A: Interaction of ropivacaine with cloned cardiac Kv4.3/KChIP2.2 complexes. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 1347-56

839.????? Schulz-Stubner S: Panic attacks and hyperventilation may mimic local anesthesia toxicity. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 617-8

840.????? Kim JT, Jung CW, Lee KH: The effect of insulin on the resuscitation of bupivacaine-induced severe cardiovascular toxicity in dogs. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 728-33

841.????? Mayr VD, Raedler C, Wenzel V, Lindner KH, Strohmenger HU: A comparison of epinephrine and vasopressin in a porcine model of cardiac arrest after rapid intravenous injection of bupivacaine. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1426-31

842.????? Oda Y, Funao T, Tanaka K, Asada A: Vasodilation increases the threshold for bupivacaine-induced convulsions in rats. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 677-82

843.????? Weinberg GL, Hertz PH, Newman J: Local anesthetic cardiac toxicity can present as late-onset hypotension, bradycardia, and asystole. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 553

844.????? Kawano T, Oshita S, Takahashi A, Tsutsumi Y, Tomiyama Y, Kitahata H, Kuroda Y, Nakaya Y: Molecular mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine on sarcolemmal adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels in the cardiovascular system. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 390-8


845.????? Fujii Y, Tanaka H, Somekawa Y: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ramosetron for preventing nausea and vomiting during termination of pregnancy. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 15-8

Neurologic Injury

846.????? Lee LA, Posner KL, Domino KB, Caplan RA, Cheney FW: Injuries associated with regional anesthesia in the 1980s and 1990s: a closed claims analysis. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 143-52

847.????? Moen V, Dahlgren N, Irestedt L: Severe neurological complications after central neuraxial blockades in Sweden 1990-1999. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 950-9

848.????? Rice I, Wee MY, Thomson K: Obstetric epidurals and chronic adhesive arachnoiditis. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 109-20

849.????? Wong CA: Neurologic deficits and labor analgesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 341-51

850.????? Kitagawa N, Oda M, Totoki T: Possible mechanism of irreversible nerve injury caused by local anesthetics: detergent properties of local anesthetics and membrane disruption. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 962-7

851.????? Johnson ME, Uhl CB, Spittler KH, Wang H, Gores GJ: Mitochondrial injury and caspase activation by the local anesthetic lidocaine. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 1184-94

852.????? Charbit B, Samain E, Albaladejo P, El Houari Y, Le Corre F, Redondo A, Deval B, Marty J: Peripartum management of a suspected spinal hematoma after epidural puncture. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 624-5

853.????? Carrero G: Paresthesia: what causes this sensory phenomenon? Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 69-70; author reply 70

854.????? Aminoff MJ: Electrophysiologic testing for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve injuries. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 1298-303

855.????? Kuczkowski KM: Neurologic complication of labor analgesia: facts and fiction. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2004; 59: 47-51

856.????? Lambert DH, Lambert LA, Strichartz GR: Questioning the mechanism of nerve injury. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 1249; author reply 1249-50

857.????? Lin JT, Lutz GE: Postpartum sacral fracture presenting as lumbar radiculopathy: a case report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85: 1358-61

858.????? Peng P, Massicotte EM: Spinal cord compression from intrathecal catheter-tip inflammatory mass: case report and a review of etiology. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 237-42

859.????? Silvanto M, Tarkkila P, Makela ML, Rosenberg PH: The influence of ambulation time on the incidence of transient neurologic symptoms after lidocaine spinal anesthesia. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 642-6

860.????? Takenami T, Yagishita S, Nara Y, Hoka S: Intrathecal mepivacaine and prilocaine are less neurotoxic than lidocaine in a rat intrathecal model. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 446-53

861.????? Taniguchi M, Bollen AW, Drasner K: Sodium bisulfite: scapegoat for chloroprocaine neurotoxicity? Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 85-91

862.????? Todd MM: Anesthetic neurotoxicity: the collision between laboratory neuroscience and clinical medicine. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 272-3

863.????? Vandam LD: Concerning neurologic sequelae of spinal anesthesia. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 176-7.? Classic papters revisited.

864.????? Lambert DH, Strichartz GR: In defense of in vitro findings. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 1246-7; author reply 1247-8

865.????? Wiertlewski S, Magot A, Drapier S, Malinovsky JM, Pereon Y: Worsening of neurologic symptoms after epidural anesthesia for labor in a Guillain-Barre patient. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 825-7

Other Injury

866.????? Kuczkowski KM: Tattoo pigments: popular fashion accessories or health hazards? Photochem Photobiol 2004; 80: 157

867.????? Alfirevic A, Argalious M, Tetzlaff JE: Pressure sore as a complication of labor epidural analgesia. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1783-4

868.????? Barak M, Fischer D, Gat M, Katz Y: Retroperitoneal hematoma after spinal anesthesia with the paramedian approach. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 851-3

869.????? Cywinski JB, Parker BM, Lozada LJ: Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma in a pregnant patient. J Clin Anesth 2004; 16: 371-5

870.????? Berry AJ: Needle stick and other safety issues. Anesthesiol Clin North America 2004; 22: 493-508

871.????? Konstantinopoulos PA, Mousa S, Khairallah R, Mtanos G: Postpartum cerebral angiopathy: an important diagnostic consideration in the postpartum period. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 375-7

872.????? Szabo T, Ali S, Camporesi EM: Intraoperative recombinant activated factor VII for emergent epidural hematoma evacuation. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 595-7

873.????? Tsui SL, Yong BH, Ng KF, Yuen TS, Li CC, Chui KY: Delayed epidural catheter removal: the impact of postoperative coagulopathy. Anaesth Intensive Care 2004; 32: 630-6

874.????? Horlocker TT: What's a nice patient like you doing with a complication like this? Diagnosis, prognosis and prevention of spinal hematoma. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 527-34

875.????? Kayacan N, Arici G, Karsli B, Erman M: Acute subdural haematoma after accidental dural puncture during epidural anaesthesia. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 47-9

876.????? Moral Turiel M, Ruiz Abascal R, Alonso Mateos M, Marquez Garrido G, Odriozola Feu JM: [Two cases of postpartum pubis diastasis mistaken for neurological complications of epidural analgesia]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim 2004; 51: 448-51

877.????? Vallejo MC, Mariano DJ, Kaul B, Sah N, Ramanathan S: Piriformis syndrome in a patient after cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 364-7

878.????? von Knobelsdorff G, Paris A: [Intracerebral hemorrhage after cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Coincidence or causality?]. Anaesthesist 2004; 53: 41-4

879.????? Zink W, Graf BM: Local anesthetic myotoxicity. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 333-40

Postdural Puncture Headache/Dural Puncture

880.????? Chan BO, Paech MJ: Persistent cerebrospinal fluid leak: a complication of the combined spinal-epidural technique. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 828-30

881.????? Dunbar B, Bacon D: Birth of an idea: the epidural blood patch. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 81-2

882.????? Steel AG, Watson BJ, Abdy S, Allen JG: Persistent cerebrospinal fluid leak. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 1266-7

883.????? Bleeker CP, Hendriks IM, Booij LH: Postpartum post-dural puncture headache: is your differential diagnosis complete? Br J Anaesth 2004; 93: 461-4

884.????? Nishio I, Williams BA, Williams JP: Diplopia: a complication of dural puncture. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 158-64

885.????? Rucklidge MW, Yentis SM, Paech MJ: Synacthen Depot for the treatment of postdural puncture headache. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 138-41

886.????? Scavone BM, Wong CA, Sullivan JT, Yaghmour E, Sherwani SS, McCarthy RJ: Efficacy of a prophylactic epidural blood patch in preventing post dural puncture headache in parturients after inadvertent dural puncture. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 1422-7

887.????? Aldrete JA, Barrios-Alarcon J: Post-dural puncture headache: pathogenesis, prevention and treatment. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 767-8; author reply 768-70

888.????? Bird H, Kapoor V, Vallance H: Post dural puncture headache in an anticoagulated patient. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 59-61

889.????? Gaiser RR, Berkowitz DH, Chou D: Epidural blood patch in a patient taking enoxaparin. J Clin Anesth 2004; 16: 386-8

890.????? Harrington BE: Postdural puncture headache and the development of the epidural blood patch. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 136-63; discussion 135

891.????? Kalina P, Craigo P, Weingarten T: Intrathecal injection of epidural blood patch: a case report and review of the literature. Emerg Radiol 2004; 11: 56-9

892.????? Kuczkowski KM, Eisenmann UB: Hypertensive encephalopathy mimicking postdural puncture headache in a parturient beyond the edge of reproductive age. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 1873-4

893.????? Lambert D: Cautious optimism on reducing spinal headache with spinal catheters. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 299; author reply 299-301

894.????? Cohen S, Casciano M, Bhausar V: Unrecognised dural punctures--revisited. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 57-8

895.????? Kuczkowski KM: Does an epidural catheter impede or stimulate dural inflammatory response and normal dural closure after dural puncture? Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 1266

896.????? Santanen U, Rautoma P, Luurila H, Erkola O, Pere P: Comparison of 27-gauge (0.41-mm) Whitacre and Quincke spinal needles with respect to post-dural puncture headache and non-dural puncture headache. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004; 48: 474-9

897.????? Angle PJ, Kronberg JE, Thompson DE, Duffin J, Faure P, Balasubramaniam S, Szalai JP, Cromwell S: Epidural catheter penetration of human dural tissue: in vitro investigation. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 1491-6


898.????? Wells J, Paech MJ, Evans SF: Intrathecal fentanyl-induced pruritus during labour: the effect of prophylactic ondansetron. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 35-9

899.????? Schumann R, Hudcova J: Cholestasis of pregnancy, pruritus and 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonists. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004; 83: 861-2

900.????? Waxler B, Mondragon SA, Patel SN, Nedumgottil K: Prophylactic ondansetron does not reduce the incidence of itching induced by intrathecal sufentanil. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 685-9


901.????? Softeland E, Bergjord K: Pneumomediastinum in labour -- probably not caused by a lumbar epidural anaesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004; 48: 123-5

Respiratory Depression

902.????? Magosso E, Ursino M, van Oostrom JH: Opioid-induced respiratory depression: a mathematical model for fentanyl. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2004; 51: 1115-28

Urinary Incontinence/Retention

903.????? Kuipers PW, Kamphuis ET, van Venrooij GE, van Roy JP, Ionescu TI, Knape JT, Kalkman CJ: Intrathecal opioids and lower urinary tract function: a urodynamic evaluation. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 1497-503


904.????? Plaat F, McGlennan A: Women in the 21st century deserve more information: disclosure of material risk in obstetric anaesthesia. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 69-70

905.????? Bethune L, Harper N, Lucas DN, Robinson NP, Cox M, Lilley A, Yentis SM: Complications of obstetric regional analgesia: how much information is enough? Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 30-4

906.????? Kelly GD, Blunt C, Moore PA, Lewis M: Consent for regional anaesthesia in the United Kingdom: what is material risk? Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 71-4

907.????? Wang LF, Tait AR, Polley LS: Demographic differences between consenters and non-consenters in an obstetric anesthesiology clinical study. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 159-63

908.????? Worthington R: Ethical dichotomies and methods of seeking consent. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 525-7

909.????? Heidegger T, Nuebling M, Germann R, Borg H, Fluckiger K, Coi T, Husemann Y: Patient satisfaction with anesthesia care: information alone does not lead to improvement. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 801-5

Economics and Staffing

910.????? Abenstein JP, Long KH, McGlinch BP, Dietz NM: Is physician anesthesia cost-effective? Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 750-7

911.????? Abouleish AE, Prough DS, Vadhera RB: Influence of the type of anesthesia provider on costs of labor analgesia to the Texas Medicaid program. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 991-8

912.????? Bailit JL, Blanchard MH: The effect of house staff working hours on the quality of obstetric and gynecologic care. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 613-6

913.????? Carvalho B, Coghill J: Obstetric anaesthesia workload and time of day. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 126-8

914.????? Epstein AM, Lee TH, Hamel MB: Paying physicians for high-quality care. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 406-10

915.????? Gaiser RR, Cheek TG, Gutsche BB: Glass recycling in the labour suite is environmentally sound and economical. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 584-6

916.????? Katz JD: Do anesthesiologists die at a younger age than other physicians? Age-adjusted death rates. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1111-3

917.????? Prata N, Greig F, Walsh J, West A: Ability to pay for maternal health services: what will it take to meet who standards? Health Policy 2004; 70: 163-74

918.????? Schuster M, Standl T, Wagner JA, Berger J, Reimann H, Am Esch JS: Effect of different cost drivers on cost per anesthesia minute in different anesthesia subspecialties. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 1435-43

919.????? Tremper KK, Shanks A, Sliwinski M, Barker SJ, Hines R, Tait AR: Faculty and finances of United States anesthesiology training programs: 2002-2003. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 1185-92

920.????? Weinger MB, Reddy SB, Slagle JM: Multiple measures of anesthesia workload during teaching and nonteaching cases. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1419-25


921.????? Na KB, Kopacz DJ: Spinal chloroprocaine solutions: density at 37 degrees C and pH titration. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 70-4

922.????? Arici G, Karsli B, Kayacan N, Akar M: The effects of bupivacaine, ropivacaine and mepivacaine on the contractility of rat myometrium. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 95-8

923.????? Awad IT, Chan V: Developing yet another spinal analgesic drug? Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 871-4

924.????? Camorcia M, Capogna G, Lyons G, Columb MO: The relative motor blocking potencies of intrathecal ropivacaine: effects of concentration. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1779-82

925.????? Chow LH, Huang EY, Ho ST, Lee TY, Tao PL: Dextromethorphan potentiates morphine antinociception at the spinal level in rats. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 905-10

926.????? El-Orbany MI, Joseph NJ, Salem MR, Klowden AJ: The neuromuscular effects and tracheal intubation conditions after small doses of succinylcholine. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1680-5

927.????? Heavner JE: Let's abandon blanket maximum recommended doses of local anesthetics. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 524

928.????? Higuchi H, Hirata J, Adachi Y, Kazama T: Influence of lumbosacral cerebrospinal fluid density, velocity, and volume on extent and duration of plain bupivacaine spinal anesthesia. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 106-14

929.????? Kalow W: Atypical plasma cholinesterase. A personal discovery story: a tale of three cities. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 206-11

930.????? Krause T, Gerbershagen MU, Fiege M, Weisshorn R, Wappler F: Dantrolene--a review of its pharmacology, therapeutic use and new developments. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 364-73

931.????? LaRoche SM, Helmers SL: The new antiepileptic drugs: clinical applications. JAMA 2004; 291: 615-20

932.????? Miller R: Will succinylcholine ever disappear? Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1674-5

933.????? Nishiyama T, Matsukawa T, Hanaoka K: Intrathecal propofol has analgesic effects on inflammation-induced pain in rats. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 899-904

934.????? Rosenberg PH, Veering BT, Urmey WF: Maximum recommended doses of local anesthetics: a multifactorial concept. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 564-75; discussion 524

935.????? Smith KN, Kopacz DJ, McDonald SB: Spinal 2-chloroprocaine: a dose-ranging study and the effect of added epinephrine. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 81-8

936.????? Tamanai-Shacoori Z, Shacoori V, Vo Van JM, Robert JC, Bonnaure-Mallet M: Sufentanil modifies the antibacterial activity of bupivacaine and ropivacaine. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 911-4

937.????? Chassard D, Bruguerolle B: Chronobiology and anesthesia. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 413-27

938.????? Warren DT, Kopacz DJ: Spinal 2-chloroprocaine: the effect of added dextrose. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 95-101

939.????? Wolff M, Olschewski A, Vogel W, Hempelmann G: Meperidine suppresses the excitability of spinal dorsal horn neurons. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 947-55

940.????? Vath JS, Kopacz DJ: Spinal 2-chloroprocaine: the effect of added fentanyl. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 89-94

941.????? Iohom G, Fitzgerald D, Cunningham AJ: Principles of pharmacogenetics--implications for the anaesthetist. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93: 440-50



942.????? US health care: a state lottery? Lancet 2004; 364: 1829-30

943.????? Auroy Y, Benhamou D, Amaberti R: Risk assessment and control require analysis of both outcomes and process of care. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 815-7


944.????? Sandel MJ: Embryo ethics--the moral logic of stem-cell research. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 207-9

945.????? McHugh PR: Zygote and "clonote"--the ethical use of embryonic stem cells. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 209-11

946.????? Bartley C, Shelton JM: Ethics of training in regional anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 406-7

947.????? Caton D: Medical science and social values. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 167-73

948.????? Kulvatunyou N, Heard SO: Care of the injured Jehovah's Witness patient: case report and review of the literature. J Clin Anesth 2004; 16: 548-53

949.????? Neal JM: Author misconduct--a continuing saga. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 90-1

950.????? Vastag B: Merits of embryo screening debated. JAMA 2004; 291: 927-9

951.????? Spriggs M: Woman wants dead fiance's baby: who owns a dead man's sperm. J Med Ethics 2004; 30: 384-5; discussion 385


952.????? Kansagra S, List J: The clinical relevance of genomic variation. JAMA 2004; 291: 1641

953.????? Landau R, Cahana A, Smiley RM, Antonarakis SE, Blouin JL: Genetic variability of mu-opioid receptor in an obstetric population. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 1030-3


954.????? Lurie S: Euphemia Maclean, Agnes Sampson and pain relief during labour in 16th century Edinburgh. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 834-5

Labor Support

955.????? Luo ZC, Wilkins R, Kramer MS: Disparities in pregnancy outcomes according to marital and cohabitation status. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 1300-7

Medicolegal Issues

956.????? ACOG Committee Opinion No. 306. Informed refusal. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 1465-6

957.????? Amon E, Winn HN: Review of the professional medical liability insurance crisis: lessons from Missouri. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 1534-8; discussion 1538-40

958.????? Bevan JC, Hardy JF: Permission to publish case reports/case series. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 861-6

959.????? Feldman JM: Do anesthesia information systems increase malpractice exposure? Results of a survey. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 840-3

960.????? Greene MF, Ecker JL: Abortion, health, and the law. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 184-6

961.????? Gyamfi C, Berkowitz RL: Responses by pregnant Jehovah's Witnesses on health care proxies. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 541-4

962.????? Hoeldtke NJ: Abortion, health, and the law. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 1908-10; author reply 1908-10

963.????? Liang BA, Roy RC: Can demonstrating board examination failure be proof of anesthesia negligence? J Clin Anesth 2004; 16: 576-8

964.????? Minkoff H, Paltrow LM: Melissa Rowland and the rights of pregnant women. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 1234-6

965.????? Reardon DC, Strahan TW, Thorp JM, Jr., Shuping MW: Deaths associated with abortion compared to childbirth--a review of new and old data and the medical and legal implications. J Contemp Health Law Policy 2004; 20: 279-327

966.????? Grant D, McInnes MM: Malpractice experience and the incidence of cesarean delivery: a physician-level longitudinal analysis. Inquiry 2004; 41: 170-88

967.????? Davies JM: Obstetric anesthesia closed claims- trends over the last three decades. ASA Newsletter 2004; 68: 12-3

968.????? Davis R: Group targets anesthesia errors, USA Today, October 6, 2004

969.????? Posner KL: Data reveals trends in malpractice payments. ASA Newsletter 2004; 68: 7-8,14

970.????? Sink M: National Briefing: Rockies: Utah: Murder charges over still born twin, NY Times. March 15, 2004

971.????? Mosk M: In delivery room baby and doctor at risk: Maryland case highlights issues in malpractice debate, The Washington Post. November 27, 2004


972.????? Bassell GM: Gertie F. Marx, MD (1912-2004). Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 141-3

973.????? Lema MJ: LeRoy D Vandam, MD: 1914-2004, and reflections on LeRoy Vandam from a grateful resident. ASA Newsletter 2004; 68: 28

974.????? Warner DO: In memory of John (Jack) D. Michenfelder, MD: (1931-2004). ASA Newsletter 2004; 68


975.????? Ouellette SM: Professional conflicts in anaesthesia in the United States. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 1247-8


976.????? Halpern SH, Darani R, Douglas MJ, Wight W, Yee J: Compliance with the CONSORT checklist in obstetric anaesthesia randomised controlled trials. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 207-14

977.????? Kotchen TA, Lindquist T, Malik K, Ehrenfeld E: NIH peer review of grant applications for clinical research. JAMA 2004; 291: 836-43

978.????? Myles PS: The pain visual analog scale: linear or nonlinear? Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 744; author reply 745

979.????? von Elm E, Poglia G, Walder B, Tramer MR: Different patterns of duplicate publication: an analysis of articles used in systematic reviews. JAMA 2004; 291: 974-80

980.????? Leppert PC: The changing face of peer review at the National Institutes of Health. Fertil Steril 2004; 81: 279-86


981.????? Chestnut DH, ed:? Obstetric anesthesia: principles and practice., 3rd Edition. Philadelphia, Elsevier Mosby, 2004

982.????? Miller RD, ed:? Miller's Anesthesia, 6th Edition. Philadelphia, Elsevier Churchill Livingsone, 2004

983.????? Wissler RN: Another busy year for SOAP. ASA Newsletter 2004; 68: 32

984.????? Bucklin BA: Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology. Ft. Myers, Florida. May 12-16, 2004. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 1257-8

985.????? New learning tracks for 2004: critical care and obstetrics. ASA Newsletter 2004; 68: 15

986.????? Desmond MJ: 'Bloody Easy'; Blood transfusions, blood alternatives and transfusion reactions: a guide to transfusion medicine. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 781.? Book Review.

987.????? Kilpatric SJ: Fetal heart rate monitoring. 3rd ed. Int J Obstet Anesth 2004; 13: 135.? Book Review.

988.????? ASA/ACOG: Patient Education Bulletin: Pain relief during labor and delivery. July 2004

989.????? Ross A: Anesthesia and obstetric management of high risk pregnancy. Anaesth Intensive Care 2004; 32: 850-1.? Book Review.

990.????? Abstracts of the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatiology 36th Annual Meeting.? May 12-16, 2004. Ft. Myers, Florida. Anesthesiology 2004;100: Suppl 1: A1-140

991.????? Abstracts of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Annual Spring Regional Anesthesia Meeting and Workshops. March 11-14, 2004.? Orlando, Florida.? Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29:(2) A1-86


992.????? Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium of Memory and Awareness in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. June 2-4, 2004, University of Hull, United Kingdom. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93: 482-94P


993.???? www.awhonn.org